Halloween party ideas 2015

Rice is the staple food of the Hmar people. Wheat, maize and millet are the substantial cereals, which can be prepared for consumption in various ways.

Large quantities of cooked rice, meat, and vegetables are consumed with various kinds of chutney, ginger, garlic, chilies, and spices. Two heavy meals of almost identical preparation a day is consumed and all else are comestibles of little significance.

Since jhum cannot supply all the vegetables and meat, they constantly go to the forest seeking for vegetables, and hunting for deers, fowls, trap small games like squirrels, birds, etc. In preparation, nothing is discarded; teeth, brain, claws, innards are all included.

The Hmars eat lots of hot chilli (pepper) but with very little spice.

Some of the famous dishes are Chartang (meat mixed with vegetable and hot pepper), Hmepawk (stew), and Changalhme (vegetable or meat cooked with hot chili and soda prepared from the ashes).

Rice bear/wine (zupui) was openly served before Christianity came. They drank zupui in celebration of arrival of successful hunting expeditions, harvest festivals and return of a good friend from a long journey.

As of now, tea is served in place of zupui (rice beer). They smoke indigenous “dumziel” or Mizo cigarette and also factory made cigarettes. They also use indigenous pipe for smoking tobacco. They sip nicotine water or “tuibur” frequently and chew betel leaves and areca nut.

(Inpui welcomes readers to send in their entries for cooking different types of Hmar traditional dishes either in Hmar or English. Add photos if possible).

Hmar women are known for their weaving skills. They dye their homespun yarns into different colours and weave exquisite clothes for the whole family. Man and women wear different kind of clothes.

Following are the common dresses/shawls of the Hmar tribe.

Hmar Am is finely woven cloth for the aristocratic womenfolk

Tawn Lo Puon is a breast cloth never to be touched by a man.

Tharlaikawn is a body wrapper with coloured strips on the back for the women.

Ngo tlong is a white wrapper for women.

Thangsuo Puon is for the great hunters and heroes who have earned the title ‘Thangsuo” for valour.

Rukrak Puon is a long wrapper for village aristocrats.

Hmar Puon is a common cloth with black and white strips.

Daraki is a dhoti for the malefolk.

Paihar is a chaddar for men.

Lukawm is a soft cloth for man’s headgear.

Puondum is a chaddar for menfolk.

Puon Kernei is the finely woven breast wrapper for the village maidens.

Arasi Puon:

Thlanlam Puon is worn by women and young ladies on mourning day.


(Last update on Feb 8, 2009. Inpui welcomes more information on each of the cloth/shawls and photos for this section)

Most of the festivals celebrated by the Hmar tribe highlights their agricultural practices. The most common and popular are the Sikpui Ruoi and Butukhuonglawm.

Sikpui Ruoi is a post-harvest festival. It is celebrated when the community had a good harvest. The Hmar Inpui (apex body of the Hmar tribe) has accepted December 5 as the offical date to celebrate Sikpui Ruoi.

Butukhuonglawm is the pre-harvest or planting season festival. It used to be celebrated in the fields itself when one farmer will lead the rest by beating a drum. The others while doing their work would then sing the Butukhuonglawm song.

Fahrel Tawk Lam (Bamboo Dance)
is the most popular dance of the Hmar tribe. It is now performed on almost all community assemblies and functions.

Dar lam and Parton lam are dances involving rhythmic beating of the drums.

Pheiphit Lam: To honour a great hunter the Hmars perform Pheiphit Lam accompanied by melodious tune trilling from their flutes.

The Hmar tribe still adhere to traditional culture by observing those festivals connected with agricultural cycle and other community rites. Their traditions are best reflected in their folksongs and dances.

Marriage: The Hmars follow the patriarchal system of marriage. The practice of bride price is still prevalent and the youngest daughter usually gets an extra price called 'Nuzum'. The youngest of the male gets to inherit his family's home and is responsible to take care of family properties.

Religion: In earlier times the Hmars practiced animism. They believed in “Pathien” or "Khuonu" (mother goddess) and animal sacrifices were made to them.

Now 99.9% of the Hmar tribe are Christians. They received the Gospel in 1910 when the Welsh missionary Mr Watkin R Roberts arrived at Senvon village in south Manipur.

As of now they are numerous churches in each villages where religious rites are performed according to the tenets of Christianity.

Music: Khuong (drum) is their main musical instrument. It is still used in their worship servises. Others include Pheiphit (whistle made of bamboo), Theihlea (bamboo flute), Darkhuong (gong), Darbu (set of small gong), Darmang (flat brass gong), Seki (set of mithun horn), Hna Mut (Leaf instrument), Perkhuong (guitar made of bamboo), etc.

Clans: According to the Hmar geneology, the following are the major clans:
Lungtau, Thiek, Khawbung, Pakhuong, Faihriem, Darngawn, Leiri, Ngurte, Khiengte, Pautu and Ngente.

(Last update on Dec 22, 2008)

Introduction: The Hmars are a small tribe living in the North East of India. They speak the Hmar language, which G.A. Grierson placed under the Tibeto-Burman language. They claimed that Manmasi was their ancestor. The word 'Hmar' literally means 'North'. Opinions, however, are sharply divided on the origin of the word 'Hmar'.

One opinion says that the word 'Hmar' was given to them by the Lushais because they lived to the north of them. The word 'Hmar' means 'north' in both Lushai and Hmar languages. If this were true, then 'Hmar', as a nomenclature, would be of a very recent origin. Another opinion holds that the term 'Hmar' is derived from the word 'Marh' or 'Mhar' that means tying of one's hair in a knot on the back. Tradition tells us that the ancestor of the Hmars, Tukbemsawm tied his hair in a knot on his back, and since then, he and his progenies came to be known as the Hmars. Yet another opinion contends that the term 'Hmar' arises from the Chin language 'Mar'. Lt. Col. J. Shakespeare wrote that the Chins called them Mar.

Whatever the case is, it is still not clear how the Hmars got their name. As Dena, a Hmar historian, writes, "Whatever may be the truth, this much is clear to us that the term (Hmar) had not yet gained popularity when the Hmars first came into contact with the British".

The Vais (Plain people) called them 'Kukis' when the Hmars first came into contact with them. It is not clear why the Vais called them 'Kukis but the Hmars had never identified or called themselves as 'Kukis'. They claimed that they are a distinct race different from it. J. W. Edgar, a Civil Officer who accompanied the British column to Tipaimukh on 3rd April 1872 writes that the term 'Kuki' was used by the Bengalis to refer to the hill people but that none of the people wanted to be called by this term. He continued, "…. I have never found any trace of a common name for the tribe among them, although they seem to consider different families belonging to a single group, which is certainly coexistence with what we call the Kuki tribe". Lt. Col. J. Shakespeare in his book "The Lushai Kuki Clans" put the Hmars under the common name of 'Old Kuki' and 'Khawtlang' to 'differentiate them from the Lushais and those currently known as Kukis'. The reason why the Hmars were identified by these names was that the Hmars were too clannish and preferred to be identified by the name of their clans rather than by a common nomenclature. The earlier writers, therefore could not find a common name for them, and seem to identify them, as they deemed appropriate.


The Hmars trace their origin to Sinlung. Numerous poems, songs and tales about this place has been made and handed down from generation to generation. However, the exact location of Sinlung is still open to debate. Several theories and views regarding the origin and location has been forwarded, some of which are:

a) Sinlung must be somewhere in South West China, possibly in the present Tailing or Silung of Yunan Province of today's China.
b) It might have been Sining in central China.
c) It might have been derived from the Chin Dynasty of 221-207 B.C.
d) It might have been a derivative of the Chinese king Chieulung who ruled during 1711 A.D.
e) It might have been a cave, and because it was sealed with a huge stone, it was called Sin (seal, close) Lung (stone, rock).
f) Sinlung was located at Retzawl village in North Cachar Hills of Assam and was named after the rock fortress there.
g) Sinlung was located at Aopatong in the border of Burma and China. The town was named after the chief Silung during the erection of the Great Wall of China.
h) It might be the present Sinlung, located near the Yulung River in Szechuan Province of China.

Although historians differ on the issue of the location of Sinlung and the origin of the name, the fact that they were in Sinlung, however, remains. Sinlung was said to be a city-state where a form of democracy was in existence. While in Sinlung, it was possible that they fought many a war with their neighbouring tribes. Bravery and courage was the greatest virtue and it was here that they started the practice of headhunting.

The Hmars eventually left Sinlung. Theories abound regarding why the Hmars left Sinlung. One view talks of the Hmars leaving Sinlung in search of greener pastures, while another ascribes it to the oppressive rule of the Chinese rulers and the Hmars' inability to repulse their enemies in Sinlung. One of their songs is highly suggestive:

Khaw Sinlung ah
Kawt siel ang ka zuongsuok a;
Mi le nel lo tam a e,
Hriemi hrai a.

Out of city Sinlung
I jumped out like a siel;
Innumerable were the encounters,
With the children of men.

It might be that the Hmars had to 'jump out like a siel' because of the cruelty of the Chinese rulers or because of the famine there. However, the reason why these people left Sinlung has never been clearly told and explained.

When the Hmars left Sinlung, they were probably in one of the successive waves of humanity from China towards the south some thousand years ago. Many historians talk mass movements of humanity in waves from China towards the south, into the Mediterranean basin, into India and into other parts of Southeast Asia during the last few thousand years. These people were probably forced out of China by the Ch'in Dynasty who, according to Dr. Edward Thomas Williams, a historian, "violated all the rules of courteous warfare, triumphed and took over the territory and symbols of the rule of the Chou dynasty (their predecessors)". It is believed that the Hmars might have been moving along with one of these waves towards the south, and eventually into India.

Hmar folk tales and songs tell us that the second settlement of the Hmars was in Shan, which was marked by a time of prosperity and peace. Hranglien Songate, a Hmar historian wrote, "In Shan their civilisation advanced much farther than Sinlung; and the people showed greater intelligence. They knew how to celebrate agricultural prosperity, learned better art of war, and made festival of the victory over the enemy. Furthermore, they learned the use of iron implements and moulding of pipes… This way they came to have the proper means of livelihood." Many of the Hmar festivals such as Butukhuonglawm (Spring festival), Lunglâk (Autumn festival) and Sesun (Solemn celebration) have their origin here in Shan. That they have started the practise of headhunting can be seen from one of their song:

Ka pa lamtlâk an tha'n dang,
Sinlung lamtlâk a tha'n dang;
Shan khuoah tha povin vang,
Tuoichawngin hranlu an tlunna;
Thlomu sieka kem in hril,
Za inhawngah hranlu bah kan sâl.

My father's steps were distinctively good,
Sinlung's steps were, indeed, distinctively good;
Few are the good men in Shan State,
Where Tuoichawng brought the enemy's head;
You talked of tips with eagle's claws, (meaning war)
And we hang the heads high with ropes.

Hmar historians wrote that this period of prosperity and peace in Shan was interrupted by a calamitous famine. As a result, the Hmars had to move further. And from Shan they were believed to have moved towards Kachin land, believed to be in the present Northern Burma (Myanmar), probably in and around Hukwang Valley at the foot of the Eastern Himalayas. This belief is substantiated by the similarity of language between the people of this region and the Hmar language till date. Of Kachin land they sang:

Tiena Kachin lei,
Ka pu leilung Himalawi.

Ancient Kachin,
And Himalawi the land of my forefathers.

As Hranglien Songate suggested, the name Himalaya was originally given by this people. He wrote that, as they came to the foot of the great mountains they decided, "Hi ei hma a tlang hi chu lawi el ei tih," (Let us circumvent this mountain before us). They named this mountain 'Hihmalawi tlang'. Here they met another tribe known to them as the Misimis or Mishmis. According to oral traditions, Sura, one of the forefathers and a well-known character fell in love with a Misimi girl named Thairanchawng and married her during those days. While here, they also came across a river, which they named Airawdung (Ai=crab, raw=burn, dung=valley). This river is believed to be the present Irawaddy River of Burma (Myanmar).

From Kachin the Hmars are believed to have moved to Kawlphai Khampat in the Kabaw Valley of Burma (Myanmar), probably by moving along the foot of the Patkai Hill Range. Here, they had three Rengs (chiefs) - Luopui, Lersi and Zingthlo- under whom they greatly prospered. Luopui ruled over the central part of the land while Lersi and Zingthlo ruled over the northern and southern parts respectively. While they were in Khampat, Luopui planted the now-famous Banyan tree that still remains traceable. This was mentioned in one of their song:

Simah Lersi, Hmarah Zingthlo,
Khawmalaiah Luopui;
Luoipui in lenbung a phun,
Khawthlang puolrangin tlan e.

On the south is Chief Lersi,
On the north, Chief Zingthlo;
At the center, Chief Luopui;
Luopui planted a banyan tree,
The hornbills feed on its fruits.

From Khampat, Chief Lersi was said to move towards the plains of Shan while others moved southward and settled in and around Champhai of today's Mizoram. But why did they leave Khampat? L. Keivom, a Hmar historian wrote, "Under what circumstances did …(they) leave Khampat and the Kabaw Valley - whether they abandoned it due to famine or in search of greener pastures or were pushed out by a stronger force - have never been clearly told. That they were nostalgic about the place and the fact that they were longing to return to it would suggest that they might have been forced to leave Khampat against their will. It might be that they had to flee the oppressive rule of the more powerful Shan Swabaws (princes)." Whatever the case was, it is clear that they had to leave Khampat.

From Khampat, it is believed that the Hmars followed the Rûn River (Imphal river) and made settlements on its banks. As they moved southwards, following the Rûn River, they moved along with the Raltes. This was clear from one of their song:

Rûntui kawi e,
Raltenu le Raltepa leh kan inkawia,
Rûntui kawi e.

Meandering Rûn,
We moved along with the Raltes,
Meandering Rûn.

From their settlements along the Rûn valley, the Hmars crossed the Lentlâng (A mountain range running from north to south. They are the eastern offshoots of the Himalayas) and settled in Champhai of today's Mizoram. It is believed that this was how the Hmars came to settle in Mizoram. The Hmars were one of the first to inhabit Mizoram, much before the Lushais or the Pawis. While they were in Mizoram, the names of the villages they inhabited were known by the name of the clans inhabiting them, such as Chawnsiem, Ngurte, Sungte, Zote, etc. The Hmars came to occupy not only Mizoram, but also parts of Manipur, Assam and Tripura as well. Hmar tales and songs told us that they were under Chawnhmang, a Rêngpui (something like a maharaja). There were six minor rêngs (territorial chiefs) - Neilal Thiek, Demlukim Hrangkhawl, Tanhril Saivate, Fiengpuilal Biete, Lawipa Hrangchal and Tusing Faihriem under him to help him in administration..

It is said that after several years, the supreme king Chawnhmang migrated to Tipera (Tripura), and since then, Tripura came to be known as 'Rêngpuiram' (land of the Rêngpui) to the Hmars. Before he left, Rêngpui Chawnhmang gave gifts/presents to each of his minor rêngs - a golden plate and a copper pot to Tusing Saivate, gong and horse to Lawipa Hrangchal, pure silver pot to Neilal Thiek, copper plate and copper gong to Fiengpuilal Biete, gong set and tripper horse to fathers of Demlukim Hrangkhawl, and the royal cloth or robe and kebai thi (necklace) to Tanhril Saivate. The copper pot that was given to Tusing Saivate is still in Retzawl village (Haflong, North Cachar Hills) with the Buongtes. Therefore the great Rêng of the Hmars left his own people and eventually became a Hindu convert. From there, he continued collecting taxes through his army every year, according to the agreement between him and his minor rengs.

It is said that after Chawnhmang's death, a new Rêng took his place. The new Rêng then sent his vai collectors to collect tax. But the Hmars could not understand the language that this army spoke since it was their own people who collected taxes before. When the army reached Champhai, the people shouted,

Vai an hung, vai an hung
Rengpui thal hlawm vai an hung;
An tawng fang ang hawi lova,
Ta puon ang la khawng rei aw.

Vais are coming vais are coming,
Rengpui's arrows (armies), vais are coming;
Their language is unknown to us,
I will strike them like a weaving cloth.

The Rêng's army was attacked (by the women) and their attempt to collect tax was resisted. And the army was sent back. The rêng then recruited Takam Vais and returned with full force and subdued the minor rengs. Hrangchal rêng, Lawipa and Lungtau rêng Hauhnar were arrested. The Hmars remembered this as Takam Vailien (Takam Vai invasion). The Hmar areas therefore became desolated and were left with no leaders or rêngs. Besides, it is said that the Hmars, during this time, started pahnam indo (inter-clan war), which greatly weakens them. Many of their songs talk of this pahnam indo.

Hmar historian Hranglien Songate suggests that these paved the way for the emergence of Lushais. The Hmars for these reasons had to flee from Champhai and its adjoining areas. Consequently the Lushais, who were beyond the Tiau River crossed over to Champhai and started raiding the Hmar areas. Hranglien Songate wrote, "Therefore, the eastern territoriy was left without any chief. This was the first dispersion of the Hmars. As there was a vacuum of power, the Lushais, who were hitherto residing on the eastern side of the river Tiau crossed over and entered the eastern territory. Vanpuia, a Lushai chief killed a hundred siels that the Hmars had left behind and made a great celebration. This was how the Lushais came to the land of the Hmars. Before, the Lushais knew that the areas where the Hmars lived were very fertile, but till then they dared not enter this land. With the invasion of the Takam Vais, and the dispersion of the Hmars, the Hmardom came to an end." This is believed to be the beginning of the end of 'Hmardom'.

Under the Lushai chiefs, the Hmars suffered greatly. Many of the Hmars came under the Lushai chiefs and became their subjects while others who did not want to be under the Lushai chiefs left and settled in the adjoining areas. It was because of this that many Hmars lost their identity and spoke the Duhlian language. As a result, the Hmars are scattered in the Chittagong Hill Tracts (Bangladesh), Tipera (Tripura), Cachar (Assam), Manipur, Meghalaya and Mizoram to the present day. Here they lived under their own chiefs (Lal). The Hmars in Cachar and North Cachar Hills came under the British control after the First Anglo-Burmese War 1824-26. The Hmars in Mizoram came under the Government of Assam since the Lushai Expedition 1871-72, and the Hmars in Manipur came under the British Raj after the Anglo_Manipur War at Khongjom in 1872.

Till then, the Hmars has had no contact with the Western world. They still practise the barbaric way of headhunting and inter-tribal warfare. The outside world was unknown to them and they were unknown to the outside world. And this was more or less the picture when a Welsh missionary Watkin R. Roberts came with the Gospel at Senvawn village in south Manipur on February 1910. Watkin R. Roberts is fondly called and remembered by the Hmars as Pu Tlangval (Sir Youngman). With the introduction of the Gospel, a wind of change swept the Hmar community. Pudaite wrote, "…to the Hmar it was more than just the mere newness that appealed to their heart. It was the amazing transforming power of the Gospel that had captivated their hearts and imaginations. They had been headhunters but now were heart hunters. They had been savage and 'uncivilised' people but now they were counted among the (rank and file of) civilised society of the earth. They had once been filled with fear and with frustration but now with friendliness and assurance of life." As of now 99% of the Hmars are now Christians.

Western education was introduced and their language (Hmar tawng, Khawsak tawng) reduced to writing. The contribution of Pu Buanga (James Herbert Lorraine), a Welsh missionary stationed in Aizawl, was especially significant. It was he who reduced the said language to writing. From then on their way of life underwent a sea of change. They gave up their old practices and embraced many Western culture and traditions for the better. A thatched Church building and a local Primary School became a common sight at most Hmar villages. The first Hmar book, Independent Kohran Hlabu, a hymnal was published in 1923. Among their kindred tribes, the Hmars are now one of the richest in literature. The literacy among the Hmars is now 70% approximately. Many Hmars are now well-educated and work in different service sectors. However, the majority of the Hmars are still cultivators, continuing the age-old practice of Jhumming / slash and burn cultivation.

They also participate in village and state level political activities. Realising the need to form an association or a union, the Hmar Students' Association (HSA) was formed in 1939 at Imphal, Manipur to cater to the needs of the Hmar students. The first Hmar political body, the Hmar Mongolian Federation (HMF) was formed at Lakhipur, Cachar. In 1953, another Hmar political body called the Hmar National Congress (HNC) was formed and it was renamed as the Hmar National Union (HNU) in December, the same year. Another Hmar political body, the Hmar Association was formed in 3 July 1986. That year itself, it was renamed the Hmar People's Convention (HPC). The HPC demanded an autonomous district for the Hmars in Mizoram. The Mizoram Government signed an accord with the HPC in 1994. As per the accord, Sinlung Hills Development Council was formed in the Hmar inhabited areas of Mizoram. The Council has its Headquarters at Sakawrdai, Mizoram.

The Hmars are now more or less a 'civilised' tribe. Most Hmar inhabitations are now well connected with the outside world. In the field of education they have made rapid progress in the last fifty years. Hmar students are now found in the best universities of India. There are students studying abroad as well. These students are second to none. Economically the Hmars, as a whole are well placed and are economically well off in comparison to their kindred tribes. With the abolition of the chieftainship in 1954, the Hmar villages come under an annually elected village authority. Till today, this is in practice. There is no class or caste system in Hmar society. From the richest to the poorest, the oldest to the youngest, all occupy an equal position in a Hmar society. They are now one of the recognised Scheduled Tribes of India.

Looking back at the last hundred years, the Hmars have really come a long long way. From nomadic headhunters, they have transformed into one of the most educated and advanced tribe of North East India. The introduction of Christianity and Western education has transformed them economically, socially and culturally for the better. From one of the most uncultured and backward of peoples, they have come to this present stage. This is really amazing and it is marvellous in our eyes! Yes, it is indeed, marvellous in our eyes!

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2. Dena, Lal. Hmar Folk Tales (Imphal: Scholar Publishing House, 1995)
3. Grierson, G.A.. Linguistic Survey of India, Vol. III, Part 3 (Calcutta, 1904) Reprinted in 1967 by Motila Banarsidass.
4. Hmar Literature Society. Nunrobu - 11&12 (Churachandpur, L&R Printing Press, 2000)
5. Darliensung. The Hmars (Imphal: L&R Printing Press, 1988)
6. Hmar, Chongtho L. Hmar Hai Tobul Hlabu Pakhatna : Hmar Traditional Song Book - 1 (Muolhoi, Haflong : Sri Guru Press, 1987)
7. Hrangchhuana, H.B. Hmar Chanchin : Hmar History (Aizawl: Lianpuii Press, 1987)
8. ICI. Manipur Rama Chanchintha a Lûtdan le Independent Church of India Chanchin (Sielmat: ICI Press, 1980)
9. Keivom, L. Hmar Hla Suina (Nairobi: L&R Printing Press, 1980)
10. Keivom, L. Ruminations: Khampat and the Banyan Tree, Delhi Thurawn, Vol. 14, No. 37, 26th August (Thlazing) 2001. Pp. 4-7
11. Keivom, Louis L. Hmar Tolung : A Study of the Hmar History and Genealogy (Imphal: EISO&L Printing Press, 1990)
12. Lalrinawma, H. Hmasang Zofate Chanchin (Aizawl : Lengchhawn Press, 2000)
13. Lalthanliana, (Dr.). Mizo Chanchin : Kum 1900 Hma Lam (Aizawl: Gilzom Offset Press, 2000)
14. Lunghnema, V. Mizo Chronicles (Churachandpur, L&R Press, 1993)
15. Mackenzie, Alexander. The North East Frontier of India (Delhi: Mittal Publications, 1979) Reprint
16. Pudaite, Rochunga. The Education of The Hmar People (Sielmat: IBPM, 1963)
17. Rokung, Lal. Ka Nun (New Delhi: Living Literature Crusade, 2001)
18. Ruolngul, Darsanglien. Chanchintha Kalchawi Part 1 (Sielmat : ICI Press, 1982)
19. Shakespear, John. The Lushai Kuki Clans (London: Macmillan & Co. Ltd., 1912)
20. Singh, K.S. (Ed.). People of India : Mizoram Vol, XXXIII (Calcutta: Seagull Books, 1995)
21. Singh, K.S. The Scheduled Tribes of India (New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2001)
22. Sinate, Lalthankhum. Kohran Hring (Sielmat: Partnership, 2001)
23. Songate, Hranglien. Hmar Chanchin : Hmar History (Pherzawl: Mao Press, 1956)
24. William, Edward T. China : Yesterday and Today (New York: Thomas Y. Crawell Company, 1927)

*Artikul sap tawnga tha tawk taka ziek hih www.hmar.net enthei a ni laia, Sawlakia blog in an lo laksawng ani a; a ziektu hming hre hai chun hung hril inla nuom a um- Inpui.

Imphal, Nov 11 2008: The Government of Manipur should withdraw the deployment of security forces from Mapithel (Thoubal)dam site and immediately stop, once and for all, its adoration for militarisation.

This was echoed by Sinlung Indigenous Peoples Human Rights Organisation (SIPHRO),a Hmar body based in the region in their website www.siphro.org.

SIPHRO which is said to have been established with the priorities of putting human rights first in the face of immense human rights violations stands for the respect and promotion of human rights and represents the diverse and diasporic Sinlung originated Hmar and its kindred tribes in India.

It said,"violence and militarisation that are instruments of the Government of Manipur has been ruining the State for all these time" adding "the government should immediately stop constructing the Mapithel Dam and review all its policies by upholding the rights, interest and aspirations of the affected people in whose land the project has been imposed".

Condemning the violent response of the Manipur police on November 3 last towards the peaceful demonstrators who were protesting against the injustice that the Mapithel (Thoubal) Multipurpose Project has imposed upon them, it said in all its policy and approach, the Government of Manipur should put its people first to make Mapithel Dam a people centric one.

Negating the rights and aspirations of the people will only go a long way to negate itself,it observed.

When a peaceful rally, led by women demands for securing their community rights, the demonstrators were met with lathi-charge, tear gas and harassed by the Police.

The high-handedness of the security forces under the insensitive eyes of the government once again affirmed the militarised character of itself, the release said

Aizawl, Nov. 26: Mizoram PCC president Lalthanhawla today accused Mizo National Front president and chief minister Zoramthanga of employing two Zomi terror gangs to intimidate his party’s opponents. The charge brought a new twist to the slanging match politicians indulge in before elections.

The MNF, while denying the charges, alleged that it was the Congress that had been using rebel gangs like the Hmar People Conference (D) and the Sinlung People’s Liberation Front in “their dirty game of proxy war” against it.

Both outfits primarily contain members of the Hmar Christian community.
In the absence of extravagant pre-poll bashes, the mud-slinging has given Mizoram electioneering some fodder for controversy.

Lalthanhawla accused the MNF of deploying hired assassins from the Zo Revolutionary Army and the Zo Revolutionary Force to unleash a “reign of terror” in north and south Champhai on the Indo-Myanmar border in Mizoram before the December 2 election.

Zoramthanga is seeking a re-election for a record sixth time to the Mizoram Assembly. Lalthanhawla said he was “very disturbed” over a chain of recent incidents in Champhai, suggesting that both the Zomi outfits “had been masterminding a plan to spoil the electoral chances of my party’s nominees in the poll fray”.

He also alleged that the chief minister had given Rs 30 lakh each to the two armed gangs as a “first instalment” to “trigger an atmosphere of fear in Champhai district and help MNF aspirants win”.

Lalthanhawla said police in the district recently apprehended six Zomi gunmen active in Manipur, Mizoram and the adjoining Chin hills’ enclave in Myanmar.

The MNF, however, has been pressuring the police to release them, he added. “The main purpose of the MNF in using such terror tactics is to reap the advantage by whipping up fear in the electorate through killings and abductions on the eve of polling,” Lalthanhawla said.

Champhai police station sources confirmed that a few Zomi rebel activists had recently managed to sneak across the border to Myanmar and a special branch had been asked to keep strict vigil. The GOC of 3 Corps, Lt Gen. R.K. Looma, who ended his two-day visit to the state yesterday, asked the Assam Rifles to plug the pores along the Myanmar border from where infiltrators sneak in.

Lalthanhawla said the MNF’s gameplan was aimed at dissuading voters owing allegiance to the Congress from going to the polling booths. He said he had already brought his charges against the MNF chief to the notice of Governor Lt Gen. (retd) M.M. Lakhera.

Aizawl, Nov 26: It is hard to believe that Mizoram goes to the polls in less than a fortnight. There is no customary fanfare associated with elections to be seen or heard here. Party flags can be seen occasionally and are mainly those of the Congress, which is usually given its full name here, the Indian National Congress (INC).

However, while the state goes to the polls in December, some of its electorate has already cast its vote. These are the Bru tribals now in Tripura, who cast their votes in two phases, the first on November 24. The second round will be held on November 26, Lalmalsawma, chief electoral officer, Mizoram, said.

"We have clubbed them into two categories, with three camps in south Tripura and three camps in north Tripura. For the duration of the postal ballot, we will send two teams, one based in Mizoram to cover the north Tripura camps and the other based in Kanchanpur sub-division for the other camp," he said.

Mizoram's just under 6 lakh electorate comprises 3.08 lakh women voters and 2.90 lakh men. However, despite women voters out-numbering the men, there are only nine women candidates of a total of 206 candidates contesting the 40 seats.

The Congress is fielding 40 candidates, the Mizo National Front (MNF) 39, Union minister Ram Vilas Paswan's Lok Janata Party (LJP) 39, the United Democratic Front (UDA) 38, with 36 Independents. This is the first time there are so many Independents, mainly people who were denied tickets by their respective parties.

While the state's chief electoral officer admitted to some worries over the movement of armed insurgent groups from Manipur into Mizoram, he said the EC has turned down the state's request for additional security. The Assam Rifles mans the international border with Burma and the Border Security Force is deployed on the Bangladesh border. The low decibel campaign, local residents claim, is the norm and not an aberration.

"Door to door campaigning is frowned upon since it makes it easier for candidates to use money power. Instead, candidates hold street corner meetings where voters can ask questions. Also, candidates are using cable television to hold debates moderated by journalists," said a resident. The televised debates are civil and each candidate is allowed a full say with no interruptions or raised voices.

Source: The Economic Times

By Prof Lal Dena
Manipur University

There is often a confabulation on whether the Hmars did originally have Jewish roots. Some of the Hmar’s oral sources appear to indicate their Jewish origin and on the basis of these sources, some writers even go to the extent of saying that Hmars and their brethrens, Kukis and Mizos could perhaps be one of the ten lost tribes of ancient Israel. Let us try to highlight these particular oral traditions and examine them critically.According to L Hranglien Songate (Hmar History: 1956), the first known ancestor of Hmars was Manmasi (Manasia) who occupied a very sacred and important place in the lives and beliefs of Hmars. His name was uttered in prayers and ceremonial sacrifices. Whenever they were to make any new settlement or to undertake an adventurous exploits, they had to invoke Manmasi’s name. In times of great calamities like earthquake, they used to shout," Be kind, be kind; we, the descendants of Manmasi are here!" As for the origin of this name, it is argued that it is derived from Mannaseh, the older son of Joseph, the eleventh and favorite son of Jacob in the Old Testament. To support this theory, the B’Nei Yisrael, North East India, Imphal has quoted one folk song as follows:Mannaseh, you came crossing sea and rivers,You came through hills and mountains;You came all the way victorious through hostile countries,Just to have the good portion of meat;Let the liver and the heart be yours, Mannaseh.Another Hmar pre-Christian legend also mentions about an unusual flood which covered the whole earth except one hill-lock where all living beings fled to their safety. Surprisingly enough, the Chorei tribe who once lived with the Hmars at Ruonglevaisuo (Tipaimukh) for several decades and who are now found mostly in Cachar district of Assam also mentions in one of their folklores thus: "Muolsang rengpa rakuong tuk" (muolsang=hill, rengpa=chief, rakuong=boat or ship, tuk= construction).

Obviously, this could be taken to refer to the construction of Noah’s ark as found in the Old Testament. One of Hmar legends also refers to what is known as Tawngsemzawl literally meaning the valley of distribution of languages resulting from an unsuccessful attempt to build an exceptionally tall building beyond the reach of any flood and subsequent providential intervention leading to the confusion of the languages of the people involving in it. This is again very similar to what is written in the Old Testament (Genesis 11: 1-9)To further support the theory of the Jewish connection, it is again argued that the Hmars like the Jews used to observe three important festivals in a year, such as the Chapchar Kut (in April); Mim Kut (in September) and Pawl Kut (in December). In pre-Christian era, whenever the forefathers of Hmars performed sacrificial rites, the priest used to construct an altar having four corners and sprinkled animal’s blood on the flour which was spread on the platform of an altar. These religious practices tend to suggest that the ancestors of Hmars and the Jews might perhaps live together at one point of time in the past.

Most often quoted in this connection is the Hmar Sikpui Festival which was celebrated from time immemorial. When they celebrated the festival, they performed the Sikpui dance with Khuongpu (drummer) and Khuongpuzailak (chanter) sitting in the middle on a raised flat stone especially erected for the occasion and the dancers making two rows-old men against old women, married men against married women, young men against young women and so on and so forth. The song of this festival makes a vivid reference to the Israelites at the time of their liberation from the Egyptian bondage under the leadership of Moses and to the events that followed after they crossed the Red Sea.

The song both in original Hmar dialect and its English rendering is as given below:

Sikpui inthang kan ur laia, Changtuipui aw sen mah rili kangintan (While we are preparing for the Sikpui festival,The big red sea becomes divided)
Ke ralawna ka leido aw,Suna sum ang, zanah mei lawn invak e (As we are marching forward fighting our foes,We are being led by cloud during day and by fire during night)
An tur an sa tlua ruol aw,In phawsiel le in ralfeite zuong thaw ro (Our enemies, Ye Folk, are thick with fury,Come out with your shields and spears)
Sun razula ka leido aw,Ke ralawna mei sum invak e (Fighting our foes all day,We march along as cloud-fire goes afore)
Sun razuala ka leido aw,Laimi sa ang changtuipuiin lem zova e (The enemies we fight all day,The big sea swallowed them like beast)
A va ruol aw la ta che,Suonglung chunga tui zuong put kha la t ache (Collect the quails,And fetch the water that springs out of the rock)

The song is self-revealing. It speaks about the incident as referred to the Exodus (Old Testament), Chapter 14: 1-31. On the significance of the song, L.Keivom, IFS (Retd) illuminatingly comments thus: "This popular song occupies such a sacred place that the Sikpui festival can start only after the participants sing it with rapt attention. This fact may, therefore, suggest that the incident referred to in the song might have been an unusual happening of great consequence in the pages of their national history. Otherwise they could not have attached such importance to it.

"Assuming that the Hmars and Kuki-Mizo people originally came from ancient Israel, what routes and which countries did they pass through to reach their present habitats? Hranglien Songate again simply stated that the Hmars entered China from the north after having passed through Afghanistan and Baluchistan. It is argued that some of the ten lost tribes were taken as captives by the king of Assyria in 722 B.C. and some of them lived in Persia following their exile there in 457 B.C. during the reign of Darius and Ahashveresh.

In 331 B.C. when Alexander the Great conquered Persia, Afghanistan and India, some of the lost tribes were exiled to Afghanistan and to other countries. On their onward migration, it is said:" From Afghanistan, their migration continued eastward through Hindukush until they reached the Tibetan region and the Chinese border. From there they continued into China, following the Wei River until they reached the central region. A settlement was established at Kaifeng in 231 B.C.

As a result of the cruel behavior of the Chinese towards them, they were forced to serve like slaves to the Chinese. Thus began the process of assimilation which crept into the tribes as a result of Chinese influences." Citing Chao Enti’s version, Hranglien Songate contends that the forefathers of Hmars had already settled in China by the time Shi Huang-ti (209-207 B.C.) established his suzerainty over the greater part of the Chinese empire. He further argues that the Chin dynasty had absorbed many of the tribes that settled in China and those who refused to be assimilated were pushed out and the forefathers of Hmar-Kuki-Mizo could perhaps be one of them.

Mainly on the basis of these oral traditions which point to the historical connection between the Shinlung people and the Israelites, some sections of Kuki and Mizo in Manipur and Mizoram have now already in the Judaising process. As a matter of fact, as many as 700 Kuki-Mizo have been settled in the territories in Judea, Samaria and Gaza in Israel on the initiative of Eliyahu Avichail, a soft-spoken, grey-bearded Jerusalem Rabbinical scholar.

Whether one agrees with the theory of the Jewish origin, we can no longer ignore the fact that it has now gained topicality and urgency both among the local writers in North East India and the Rabbinical scholars and intellectuals in Israel. Accompanying Rabbi Avichail in his extensive tour of East Asia and South East Asia including North East India in search of lost tribe of Israel several times, Hillel Halkin, an Israeli veteran journalist, has just published a very thought provoking and illuminating book entitled Across the Sabbath River: In Search of a Lost Tribe of Israel.

The Hmars are divided into several clans and sub-clans though there is no discrimination on the basis of such division in their society now. However, in earlier times there used to be clan wars with each clans occupying a separate village. It is for this reason that there are some Hmar villages which still retained their clan-village names. Eg. are: Khawzawl, Zote, Biete, Khawbung and Sungte villages. Following are the clans and sub-clans of the Hmar tribe.

In alphabetical order:
Betlu, Chongol/ Chungngol, Darnei, Fatlei, Hmunhring, Khurbi (Lienate), Nampui, Ngaite, Ngamlai, Puilo, Sawnlien, Tamlo, Tamte, Thienglai, Tlungngurh
3. CHANGSAN: Armei, Chailong/ Chaileng, Hranhnieng, Hrawte, Kellu, Ngawithuom, Ngulthuom, Thangngen, Zilchung, Zilhmang
4. CHAWROI: Langkai, Nisatarai, Saithuoi, Tuipai
5. CHAWTHE: Chamte, Chawndang, Chawnfieng, Chawnthik, Halte, Hawnsang/ Hawnzawng, Lienhna, Suonhoi, Tamva, Thaman
6. CHAWTHEI (HMARLUSEI): Chonzik, Hnechawng, Lamthik, Luophul, Neichir
8. DARLONG: Biete (Fatlei, Faihriem, Khawhren, Saihmar, Saihriem), Hrangchal (Khuolte, Rante, Tlawmte), Ngurte (Rante, Songate, Fatlei), Thiek (Chongkal, Hmante, Hnamte, Kangbur, Vankal), Zote (Chawrawl, Chonnel, Saite, Sie)
9. DARNGAWN: Banzang (Chawnghmunte, Famhoite, Fatlei, Khamchangte, Lamchangte, Sanate, Sinate), Faiheng, Pakhuong (Buongpui, Hranngul, Khelte, Khuongpui), Ruolngul, Shakum (Hauhmawng, Hauhnieng, Kilong), Shonte, Tlau
10. FAIHRIEM: Bapui, Dulien/Khawhrang/ Khawhreng, Khawkhieng, Khawlum, Khawral, Saihmar, Saivate, Seiling, Sekong, Thlanghnung, Tuimuol, Tuollai, Tusing
11. HRANGATE: Hrangate, Hrangdo, Hrangman, Hrangsute
12. HRANGKHAWL: Chawlkha, Dumkher, Penate/ Penatu, Phuoitawng
13. KHAWBUNG: Bunglung, Fente, Laising, Muolphei, Pangamte, Pazamte, Phunte (Siersak,Siertlang), Riengsete, Tente
14. KHELTE: Hmaimawk, Lutmang, Singhlu, Sierchuong, Thatsing, Vankeu, Vohang, Vohlu, Zahlei, Zaucha
15. KHIENGTE: Chawngte, Khello, Khupsung, Khupthang, Kumsang, Muolvum, Singbel
16. KHUOLHRING: Chunthang, Khintung, Leidir, Lozum, Lungen/ Lungsen, Midang, Milai, Peiltel, Rawlsim, Suokling, Thlaute
17. KOM

19. LANGRAWNG: Bawng, Kaipeng, Muolthuom, Pang
20. LAWITLANG: Chawnsim, Hrangchal (Darasung, Laiasung,Sielasung, Tungte), Parate, Sungte, Suomte, Tlangte, Tlawmte, Varte
21. LEIRI: Neingaite, Pudaite, Puhnuongte, Pulamte, Puruolte, Tlandar
22. LUNGTAU: Infimate, Intoate, Keivom, Lungchuong (Inbuon), Mihriemate, Nungate, Pakhumate (Khumthur, Khumsen), Pasuolate, Sielhnam, Songate, Sunate, Theisiekate, Thlawngate, Tamhrang
23. NEITHAM: (Also Under Zote) Chawnhning/ Chawnhring, Khawthang, Maubuk, Singphun, Thangleh, Thangngawk, Vaithang
24. NGENTE: Bawlte, Chawnghawi, Dosak, Dothang/ Dothlang, Kawngte, Laihring, Lailo, Laitui, Tuolngul/ Tuolngun, Zawngte, Zawhte
25. NGURTE: Bangran/ Bangrang, Chiluon, Parate, Saingur, Sanate (Pusingathla, Saidangathla), Traite, Zawllien
26. PAUTU: Fuongzal, Senlawn, Singate, Tluongate
27. RAWITE: Aite, Arro, Buite, Hnungte, Pieltu, Sawrte, Seldo/ Sehdue
28. SAKECHEP (SAKECHEK): Bawmlien, Keiphun, Keiphung, Khawlum, Neibawm, Sungtinpha, Telengsing, Thingphun, Thirau/ Thirsu, Vaichei/ Vaichai, Zeite
29. THIEK: Amaw (Chalhril, Hmunhring), Athu, Buhril, Chawnnel, Hekte (Chawnghekte, Ralsun), Hmante, Hnamte, Kellaite, Khawzawl (Lalun, Laldau, Saibung), Kungate, Khangbur, Pakhuomate (Khumsen, Khumthur), Sellate, Tamte, Thilhran, Thilsawng, Thluchung, Tuolte, Tuolawr, Tamlo, Taite, Vankal (Khawbuol, Pangote, Pangulte), Zate
30. VANGSIE: Dosil, Ivang,Theidu/ Theiduha, Tlukte, Vanghawi, Zapte
31. ZOTE: Buonsuong, Chawnghau, Chawngvawrtu/ Chawngvar, Chuonkhup, Chawngtuol, Darkhawlai/ Darkhawlal, Dawthang, Hrangate/ Hrangzote, Hrangdo, Hrangman, Hrangsite/ Hrangsete, Hrangsote, Hriler, Maubuok, Neitham (Chawnhnieng, Singphun), Ngaite, Parate, Pasuolate, Pusiete/ Pusieate, Saiate (Saihmang), Tlangte/ Tlangate, Thangnawk, Vaithang

By L. Keivom, Inpui.com Columnist

L. Keivom
June 25, 2004 a Times of India phek tontirah ‘Scrap ‘toxic’ texts : HRD panel’ ti a um a, a parakraf hmasa taka chun, “The three-member committee, set up by the HRD ministry to review ‘saffronised’ NCERT history text books, has recommended scrapping the books immediately” tiin a’n ziek a. Hi thil hin kum 1973-74 laia Pu L. Rokung leh nasa taka thrang laa Pu Hranglien Songate ziek ‘Hmar History’ chu sut nawk a ni hmaa umzie nei meta siem thratpui kan tum lai hun a mi’n hriet suoktir a. Chuleiin, hi artikul hi ka Baibul inlet buoi lai hun tepter tak karah ka hung ziek pha ta hiel a nih.

A hmasain, chanchin ei tar lang tah thu hi a trobul hang thlir hmasa inla. Delhi tlanga BJP sorkar an hung inlal khan an thilthaw tum laia pakhat chu Hindu kulmuthai ril rem zawng le an chanvo sukvawng zawnga India histawri ziek thrat a nih. Chu ding chun sikula histawri lekhabu po po siem thrat phot a nih. Chu chu thaw thei ding chun a ram puma hmang thei text books siemtu dinga pawl indin, National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) bu zawla an mi le sahai sie lut a, chu taka kuo suot nghet chu a nih.

Hieng tieng thil po po sorkor laipuia cheltu chu kha hmaa Ministry of Education ti hlak, tuta Human Resources Development (HRD) ti hung ni ta hi a nih. Chu ministry enkoltu dinga Minister an ruot chu Hindu pachal, Hindu a nih ti miin an hriet naw inlau ang ziezang anga a chal nal sen zing hlak Pu M. M. Joshi a nih. Pa fel tak le lekha thiem tak a ni zing laiin ngolvei pakhat a nei a, chu chun a mit meng le khaw hmu a sukvai hlak bakah phuok fawm histawri ziek chaknain a kut a sukza zok zok bok a. Chu chalrang chun a thiltum sukhlawtlingtu dingin pa vun sa, hmai phak lul el, khel thu tran leia hmai trimna nei der lo, a hming Rajput an ti chu NCERT lu takah a hung sie a. Rajput chun kha hmaa history textbooks ziektuhai po po chu hnawlin, a pu ditzawng ang taka histawri her rem thei ding mihai chu a thlang khawm a, ei ram histawri an suosam a, a por chu nasa tak a nih.

Hindu kulmuthai rong kaia naupang inchuk dinga histawri an ziek thar chu a nih ei thu bula chanchinbu ripawt ei tar langa hnawl vong nghal dinga an ti kha. Hi hi May 2004 inthlangpuia Congress le a sangawi zawnpuihaiin BJP le an chekawihai an hung suom thlak leia thil um a nih. BJP sorkar inlal zom pei hai sien chu histawri phuokfawm mi’n ba lui pei an ta, ram dang nuizat bûr ei kai ding a nih.

Hindu kulmuthaiin an histawri an inzapui bek bek laia pakhat chu bawng sa an fak hlak thu a nih. Pathien anga bawng an hung bieka inthokin hi thil hi an inzapui a, histawri bua inthoka thai bo an tum trêp trêp a nih. Amiruokchu, an lekha hluiah bawng sa an fak thu hi ziekin a um bok si. Aryan Civilisation huna khan, Judahai ang bokin, Pathien hmaa inthawina pom tlak taka an nei chu bawngchal tuoia inthawi a nih. Chu sa chu an thiempu Brahmin-hai chanpuol a ni leiin, an bawng tuoi thra thra sa fa zotu chu an thiempuhai an nih. Chuonga bawngchal tuoi a hlu lei le a thei phot chun inthawinaa hmang an hung tum seng leiin rana sor ding bawngchal an hung tlawm pha ta a. Hun a hung sawt deu chun bawng sa chu Brahmin-hai chauh fak thiengah an hung sie a, inthawina dinga sa ser bik a hung inchang a. Hun a fe pei a, Brahmin-hai ngei khomin bawng sa fak chu an hung bàn a, fak thieng loa ngai a hung ni tah a nih. Chik taka ei sui chun, bawng sa an fak ta nawna san hi sakhuona thil lei ni loin, bawng hi mihriem khawsaknaa sor trangkai ran a ni lei a nih.

Chu chu thil um dan a nih. An lo fak hlak thu hi an fak ta naw leia sukbo el thei a ni nawh, thil tlung ta sa a ni leiin. Chuong chu ni loin, thil liem ta hnung hi her kira thlak thei ni sien chu, Evi thei fak khom kha a fak hma charin her kir ei ta, a hnung peia Pathien le mihriem inlaichinna thu po po le Isu Krista hungna thu po po khom pei hmang vong hung ngai a tih. Chu chu thil thei a ni naw a, thei khom ni sien thil ditum ni kher naw nih. Chu chun thil tlung tahnung, mani tranghma kei zawnga hêm kuol tuma phuok fawm histawri le hmet rem tum hang triumzie a hril chieng hle. Zani khan voisun a hring a, voisun hin a tuk a hring a, ni kum khan tu kum a hring a, tu kumin kum nawk a hring pei hlak ang bokin thilthaw pakhatin thilthaw dang a hring a, a’n kakhawk sawng pei a nih. Khel le phuok fawm histawri chu thil tlung lo a ni leiin tak ramah kakhawk a nei naw a, iemani hunah mihaiin lo ring hai sienkhom, tuili lut angin, khêl chu a hung inlàng suok hun a um a, chu pha chun hnawl a ni tho tho hlak a nih.

Hi ngirhmuna inthok hin tienami anga hril le zieka um ei histawri hin bel chieng a dawl nawzie hmu nghal ei tih. Pu Hranglien Songate chun ziek ngeia Hmar chanchin sie nuomin hmun hrang hrang fangin chanchin a khon khawm a. Chuong a thil lak khawmhai chu ‘Hmar History’ ti hmingin lekhabuin a siem a, kum 1958 khan sut a na, Hmar tronga ziek histawri bu ei nei hmasa tak a nih. A sung thu a tam lem chu histawri huong (historical framework) a khum thei ni naw sienkhom a um sun a ni leiin a poimaw êm êm a, a hnunga ei chanchin hung ziektu taphotin besanin an hung nei ta vong a nih.

Pu Hranglien lekhabu hi histawri huonga khum ding chun thil tlung hun le a tlungna hmun le hmet rem a hung ngai a, chu chu ama dam lai ngeia thawpui kan tum chu a nih. Hi thil hi kan buoipui laia Pu Hranglien le Pu Rokung ngaidan chun, chanchin kan hlu lut taphot chu mi dang a hre lem an um naw leiin mihaiin an hung pom vong ding a nih ti a na. Kei ruok chun, “Ei thil ziekhai hi lungvar le hrietna nei tak tak thrangtharhaiin la hung sui an ta, historical framework-ah hung bel rem tum an ta, a thei si naw chun an la hung hnawl vong ding a na, chuleiin histawri huonga khum thei chin po thlier hrang ei ta, a dang po chu thusim le thurachi (legends and myths) hnuoiah tienami angin ei sie lut ding a nih” ka ta.

Pu Hranglien le Pu Rokung thlir dan le thrahnemngaina hi Hindu kulmuthaiin an thusim le thurachi hmanga India histawri ziek thrat an tum ang hi a nina chin a um a. Chu umzie chu story ni si history anga hlu lut, tienami ni si, a tak anga inchangtir tina nih. Chu chu tu chena eini rawiin lekhabu ei ziek changa ei thaw dan chu a ni tlangpui. Ei hlaa San/Shan chu tu laia Burma rama Shan State ni dingin mi tam tak chun ei bel. Amiruokchu, historical framework-ah hang thun lut tum inla, a’n leng tlat si nawh. A thren lem chun Rakhen khuoa inthokin Shan-ah ei inpemtir a, chu hnungah Kawl phai (Kabaw Valley) ah ei inluttir a, Khampatah Luopui inlaltirin, a tupa Chonhmang chu Tripura tlung raka Reng nina ngirhmun chelin ei inpemthlaktir a tih. Chu lai chanchina chun Sortuia Neilal le Truoni chanchin khom ei inthrangtir a nih.

Hieng ei thil hmet bel tumhai hi a karinkik thei khop el a, ei bi chieng po leh a nuizatumzie ei hmu suok zuol. Chonhmang hi kum zathum vel bek ei indamtir a ni naw chun a chanchin ni awma ei hril vet hi historical framework-ah inleng thei naw nih. Rakhen khuo ei ti vet khom hi chik lema ei bi chun Saphaiin Arakan an ti, Kawlhaiin Rakhine an ti, Bangladesh rama Chittagong Tract le inramri, Burma rama State lai po poa thlang dep tak biela khaw pakhat a ni ring a um. Rakhine (Rakhen) biel tlung ta hnunga Shan rama hang inpêm tungtir nawk chu thil bangbo le thu lu bul a nih.

Ei tienami le ei histawri anga ei ngai tam tak hi thutak leh inzawlna an nei nawh. Chun, Zo hnathlakhai po po hi Kabaw phai vel le Chin Hills-a kum zathum neka tam ei um lai khan tu laia ei satpui rak rak hnam hminghai hi an la pieng nawh. HMAR hming lem lem hi chu Hmar hnathlak a tam lemin Mizoram an suoksan hnunga pieng chauh a nih. ‘EICH EM A AR HMAR hi a lo nih, Pi le pu chen khoma an lo sak sa” ti hla dam hi histawri khel tieng rama um a nih. HMAR hming hi pi le puhai phuok ni loin, kum 1800 A.D hnunga Lusei lalhaiin Mizorama inthoka hmar tieng pana fe pawl an hrilna trong, hnam hminga ei put ta mei mei a nih.

Zo hnathlakhai histawria chieng tak, sel ngaina um lo thutak chu ser khat suok, sul khat kuol, iemani chen ei um dar hnunga hnam hrang hrang anga insal ta mei mei ei nina hi a nih. A tu hnam histawri khom ei unau danghai le inkop loa a hrana ziek thei a ni nawh. A hrana Hmar History amanih Lusei History amanih ziek tum chu taksa bung laia peng pakhat chauh sui tum ang a na, ziek tral ei tum a ni chun phuok fawm histawria hnaw puom a ngai naw thei nawh. Tu chena Mizo History anga ziek tahaiin bel chieng an dawl nawna san khom Luseihai chanchin ziek hi Mizo History ziek an insawn tawl lei a nih. Chu chu a nih ka hril nuom.

(April 23, 2005)
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