Halloween party ideas 2015

By Zozam Times

Chief Minister Lal Thanhawla chuan "Mizoram hi zohnahthlakte tan chuan Inpui bera kan neih a ni a, ram pawn a miten Mizo nih an duh emaw, duh lo emaw, an mangang nikhuaah chuan Mizoramah bawk an lo tlan khawm leh thin a. Mizoram hi Zofate inpui ber a ni a, Pathianin min tawn-khawmna pakhat chu Lusei tawng hi a ni a, Mizo chi peng hrang hrangte chuan hman nise a tha hle a ni" a ti.

Inrinni-a Chanmari YMA Hall-a 'Zoram damna Hla Kutpui’ leh Lalremsiem Fakna hla Album tlangzarhna hun-ah Chief Minister chuan sawiin, "Thenawm ram amite chimral an nih lai pawhin Pathian nungin kan ramah hian min hum zel a, khavel sakhaw lian ber ber Bhudish, Hindu leh Mosolman ten min hual bet mah sela, min chimraltute an lo lan dawn velah Pathianin Missionary a rawn tir lut ta a. Lal lungawina atan leh chanchintha hril kawnga hma kan lak zel chuan he hnam hi tute hnam mahin min chim ral ka ring ngai lo va, Pathian nung lakah hian Mizo hnam hi kan special a ni" a ti.

"Inngeih leh inlungrual taka kohhran hrang hrang kan awm hi Pathian nung duhzawng a ni a, kan duhdan zawng theuha kan kal ringawt chuan ring thar kan siamte tan kal ngaihna a awm dawn lo a ni" a ti bawk.

He hunah hian Brig T Sailo MLA, Lalduhoma MLA, Lok Sabha MP CL Ruala, Assembly Speaker R. Romawia bakah Parliamentary Secretary leh MLA engemawzat an tel a, mipui an kal tha hle a ni.

He fakna inkhawm leh album tlangzarh inkhawmah hian Churachanpur, Shillong, Lawngtlai, Saiha, Lunglei leh Mizoram hmun hrang hrang atangin mipui an kal khawm a. Album hi Pite- Lalriliani, Biakveli LPS leh Rev Dr Da-rchungnunga ten an tlangzarh a. SAY zaipawl, EFCI Aizawl Choir leh he albuma zai mi 16 te zai ngaihthlak a ni a, nilengin Pathian faka hun hman a ni.

1. Write Short Notes on any Three of the following (Each one should not exceed 200 words):- (20 × 3 = 60)
(a) Biological Anthropology
(b) Protein Synthesis
(c) Forms of descent groups
(d) Structural – functionalism

2. Discuss the modern theory of evolution
with special reference to the concepts of gradualism and punctuationalism.(60)
3. Discuss the importance of field work in anthropology and describe various tools of data collection.(60)
4. Discuss the relation between culture and personality.(60)

5. Write short notes on any three of the following in about 200 words each:(20 × 3 = 60)
(a) Nutritional anthropology
(b) ABO and Rh blood group distribution in human population
(c) Inbreeding
(d) Bioevent of fertility

6. Define adaptability. What bicultural adjustments do human show in coping up with stress at high altitude?(60)
7. What do you understand by ‘Hardy – Weinberg equilibrium? Discuss the factors that produce and redistribute variations.(60)
8. Discuss the role of anthropology in designing defence and other equipments.(60)

1. Write Short Notes on any Three of the following (Each one should not exceed 200 words):-(20 × 3 = 60)
(a) ‘Langhnaj’
(b) The distribution of Indo- Aryan Languages
(c) Paleoanthropological significance of Narmada Man
(d) Concept of Ethnoarchaeology

2. Is Risely’s Racial Classification of Indian population valid? Critically discuss with the help of suitable example.(60)
3. Is Tribe-Caste Continuum a reality or myth? Discuss.(60)
4. Critically examine the concepts of Little and Great Traditions for understanding the Indian Villages.(60)

5. Write Short Notes on any Three of the following (Each one should not exceed 200 words):-(20 × 3 = 60)
(a) Mediterranean Element in India population
(b) Concept of Ethnicity
(c) Tribes as Indigenous Culture
(d) Revivalistic Movement

6. Discuss the health problems faced by tribal populations in India. Suggest some corrective measures.(60)
7. How have modern democratic institutions influenced the Indian tribal societies?(60)
8. What are the special problems of primitive Tribal Groups (PTGs)? How far have the developmental programmes of the government been able to address these? (60)

Asterix and Obelix emerged from a drunken stupor of writer Rene Goscinny and the illustrator Albert Uderzo, 50 years ago. The creators chose Gauls as the protagonists of their comic strip for their joi-de-vivre and infused them with a lot of charisma, sharp wit and a delectable sense of humour. Little wonder, that over the years, Asterix has become one of the most loved and popular comic strips in the world.

The comic became a commentary on society, politics and culture. The Gauls are eternally at war with the Romans in this comic strip and with a little help from their druid, Getafix, manage to keep the 'silly' Romans at bay. Asterix, the shrewd but diminutive warrior is helped in his adventures by Obelix, the obese, food-loving softie giant and his dog, Dogmatix. Obelix is said to have fallen into Getafix the druid's magic potion as a baby - that's where he gets his superior strength from. But his voracious appetite for boars defies all claims for anything magical. Dogmatix is said to have met Asterix and Obelix in Lutetia and followed them around ever since.He is intelligent but largely useless when it comes to following a trail.

Among the other recurring characters are Vitalstatistix, Impedimenta, Cacofonix, Fulliautomatix, and Geriatrix. Getafix, the robed, bearded old druid, is the one who brews up the magic potion that renders all Gauls indomitable. He often sends Asterix on several adventures in search of ingredients for his magic potion. Cacofonix, the village bard, who considers himself a great singer, likes to annoy the villagers with his completely out-of-tune music, hence the name. He loves to play his lyre, his drums, his bagpipes and a Celtic trumpet much to everyone's disgust. And invariably, he gets gagged and tied to a tree at the end of every story.

Chief Vitalstatistix is the red-haired, pigtailed leader of the Gaulish village. Although he's reasonable, fearless and well-informed, he's rather laidback – and a mouse when his wife, Impedimenta, is around. Like all Gauls, he loves his food and drinks. Impedimenta is the self-proclaimed is the leader of the village wives and the best cook in the village. Geriatrix is the oldest inhabitant of Asterix's village, according to 'Asterix at the Olympic Games', where he's said to be 93 years old. Of course, he says he feels at least 10 years younger when he's drunk. He may be old, but has an eye for young lasses and has a very young wife whom he is extremely possessive of, who remains unnamed. And Fulliautomatix is the village smith, second in strength to Obelix.

The character names have been the most appealing factor in this comic strip and convey the wit and humour of the creators. In the last 50 years, the 33 books have sold 325 million copies and have been adapted into 11 films across the world. In India, too, Asterix has been every growing child's companion over the years. The Indian publishers, Hachette India, are planning to come out with a boxed set of the comics soon for die-hard fans.

[Inpui Exclusive]
Oct 31, 2009:
October ni 14-17 sung khan Institute of Asian Studies (IAS), Chulalongkorn University le Euro-Burma Office huoihawtna hnuoiah "First International Conference on Shan Studies"nei a ni a. Hmar Mizo sunga inthawkin senior anthropologist Pu Ramtheinghlim Varte khom North East India Center for Indigenous and Cultural Studies(NEICICDS) aiawi in a zu thang ve a; an seminar chu a hlawtling hle thu chanchin ei lo dawng.

Seminar hi Maha Chalulongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand, campus a nei a nih.

HSA general president lo ni tah Pu Ramthienghlim in ‘An Anthropological Study of Lesser Known Shans: A case study of Mizo-Chin-Kuki Tribes of India’ ti thupui hmangin seminar paper a pek a, mi pungkhawm han an ngai nuom hle ni'n NEICICDS director Pu Zarzosang Varte chun a hril.

Mizo-Kuki-Chin group a Hmar tobul- Sinlung a inthawk ei chengna North East India, ei khawtlang nunphung (Culture), nina (identity) hai tapte bula tawngbauva hril le khekpui el nilovin ziek ngeiin hi conference-ah hin hlawtling tak le phuisui taka present ni'n chanchin ei dawng leiin lawm a um hle.

Hi seminar a thanghai hih hmun dang dang -- United States, Australia, Sweden, England, China, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand le India-- a mithiem fe khawm an nih. India ram a inthawk paper presenter chu Pu Ramthienghlim Varte chau a nih.

"Conference chu phuisui takin zofel a nia. Tarik ni 17, October 2009, khan Myanmar a inthawka hung ei suopui unau haiin lam chi hranghrang an min entir a; theihle mut dam, darkhuong hmanga lam chi tum an thaw bawk a, eini le in dangna alo um bek bek nawh" ti'n Pu Ramthienghlim chun Inpui.com a hril.

[Editor's note: Nakie tieng leh Pu RTh Varte seminar paper chu ei la hung insuo nawk ei beisei a nih.]

Police Verification lak dingin Sum pek a tul nawh
Police Verification, Passport le Character Certificate lakna ding in sum pek a tul nawh.

Sum la an um chun report hung pe inla an chunga action lak ning a tih, tiin SP, CCPur le OC, Churachandpur Police Station hai chun an hril.

Haire Hai- III buoipui mek
Tuithraphai: Hairehai-III “Lengi kan rawh, Valmawi zui rawh” ti thupui hmanga Hmar Music Video and Audio chu tulai hin buoipui mek a ni a, December 5, 2009 khin New Delhi-ah release ning a tih, tiin Tv. Lalsanglien a inthawk thu ei lo dawng.

HPC(D) in Press Release an siem
Tuithaphai: George Hmar, Town Commander, HPC(D), Churachandpur Division in zanita Press Release a siem a chun, Mr K.T.Hmar, Finance Collector, HPC(D), Churachandpur Division chu Organisation in\huoi dan a bawsiet leiin October 20, 2009 a inthawk inchawltir a nih. Chun, ama le inzawma thubuoi le hlabuoi hi nia inthawk a lo um ani chun Organisation mawphurna ninaw ni a, ama mimal mawphurna ni lem a tih, ti mituelkhawm hriet ding in Press Statement ka hung siem tiin an hril.

Source: Hmasawnna Thar

Dear patrons, We are happy to announce that we at Inpui have reached an understanding with the publishers of leading Mizoram daily newspaper The Zozam Times for sharing of exclusive news items and other stories that are relevant to both the parties.

So, be prepared for some of the best or even shocking stories coming from Mizo homeland -- Mizoram.

--Inpui Admin--
Lalmalsawm Sungte

Employment News issue dated 31.10.09 contains several attractive advertisements from some of the leading PSU/GOVT. Departments as below:-

1. Himachal Gramin Bank requires Clerk-cum-Cashier (Office Assistants).
2. Department of Atomic Energy invites applications for various posts.
3. Staff Selection Commission declares the results of Combined Matric Level (Main) Examination, 2008.
4. Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Noida needs Draughtsman.
5. National Geophysical Research Institute requires Scientists and Technical Assistants.
6. Technology Information, Forecasting and Assessment Council notifies Women Scientists Scholarship Scheme (WOS-C).
7. Border Road Organsations requires 2490 various posts.
8. Central Tool Room and Training Institute invites applications for Free Training Programme for various Technical Courses.
9. Defence Research and Development Organisation requires Scientists.
10. The Indian Navy invites applications from unmarried male candidates for Grants Commission in Naval Armament Inspection Cadre of Executive Branch.
11. Goa Shipyard Limited invites applications for the posts of Sr. Manager, Manager, Nursing Assistant etc.
12. NSIC Technical Services Centre, Okhla offers admission to various Technical Courses.
13. National Institute of Immunology offers admission to Ph.D Programme for the Academic Year 2010-2011.
14. Jawaharlal Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education & Research, Puducherry invites applications for the posts of Technical Assistant, Perfusionist, Assistant etc.
15. Tehri Hydro Development Corporation Limited invites applications for various posts.
16. National Institute of Agricultural Extension Management offers admission to Post Graduate Diploma in Management.

Employment News issue dated 31.10.2009 contains advertisement for job vacancies of more than 85 Govt. Departments.

Book your copy of Employment News immediately with your local Book Seller.

Following is the new syllabus for IAS Exam Civil Engineering optional.



1. Engineering Mechanics :

Units and Dimensions, SI Units, Vectors, Concept of Force, Concept of particle and rigid body. Concurrent, nonconcurrent and parallel forces in a plane, moment of force and Varignons theorem, free body diagram, conditions of equilibrium, Principle of virtual work, equivalent force system.

First and Second Moments of area, Mass moment of Inertia.

Static Friction Inclined plane and bearings.

Kinematics and Kinetics :

Kinematics in cartesian and polar co-ordinates, motion under uniform and nonuniform acceleration, motion under gravity. Kinetics of particle : Momentum and Energy principles, D `Alemberts Principle, Collision of elastic bodies, rotation of rigid bodies, simple harmonic motion.

2. Strength of Materials :

Simple Stress and Strain, Elastic constants, axially loaded compression members, Shear force and bending moment, theory of simple bending, Shear Stress distribution across cross sections, Beams of uniform strength, Leaf spring, Strain Energy in direct stress, bending and shear.

Deflection of beams :

Macaulays method, Mohrs moment area method, Conjugate beam method, unit load method. Torsion of Shafts, Transmission of power, closecoiled helical springs, Elastic stability of columns : Eulers, Rankines and Secant formulae. Principal Stresses and Strains in two dimensions, Mohrs Circle. Theories of Elastic Failure, Thin and Thick cylinders : Stresses due to internal and external pressures-Lames equation.

3. Structural Analysis :

Analysis of pin jointed plane trusses, deflection in trusses. Three hinged and two hinged arches, rib shortening, temperature effects, influence lines in arches. Analysis of propped cantilevers, fixed beams, continuous beams and rigid frames. Slope deflection, moment distribution,, Kanis method and Matrix method : Force and Displacement methods. Rolling loads and influece lines for determinate beams and pin jointed trusses.

Part-B Geotechnical Engineering:

Types of soil, field identification and classification, phase relationships, consistency limits, particle size distribution, classification of soil, structure and clay mineralogy.

Capillary water and structural water, effective stress and pore water pressure, Darcys Law, factors affecting permeability, determination of permeability, permeability of stratified soil deposits.

Seepage pressure, quick sand condition, compressibility and consolidation, Terzaghis theory of one dimensional consolidation, consolidation test. Compaction of soil, optimum moisture content, Proctor Density.

Subsurface exploration, methods of boring, sampling, types of sampler, field tests.

Shear strength of soils, Mohr-Coulomb failure theory, shear tests Earth pressure at rest, active and passive pressures, Rankines theory, Coulombs wedge theory, earth pressure on retaining wall.

Bearing capacity, Terzaghi and other important theories, net and gross bearing pressure, Immediate and consolidation settlement.

Load carrying capacity of pile groups.

Stability of slope-Conventional method of slices, stability numbers.

Transporation Engineering :

Highway alignment, choice of layout and capacity of highways, location survey, geometric design of highways-various elements, curves, grade separation and segregation of traffic, intersection design, highway materials and testing subgrade and pavement components, types of pavements, road drainage, elements of airport engineering.

Railway engineering-elements of permanent track-rails, sleepers, ballast and rail fastenings, tractive resistance, elements of geometric design-gradients and grade compensation on curves, cant transition curves and vertical curves, stresses in railway tracks, points and crossings, signalling and interlocking, maintenance of railway track. Culverts and small bridges.


Fluid Mechanics: fluid properties, fluid statics, forces on plane and curved surfaces, stability of floating and submerged bodies.

Kinematics: Velocity, streamlines, continuity equation, accelerations irrotational and rotational flow, velocity potential and stream functions, flownet, separation.

Dynamics: Eulers equation along streamline, control volume equation, continuity, momentum, energy and moment of momentum equation from control volume equation, applications to pipe flow, moving vanes, moment of momentum, Dimensional analysis.

Boundary layer on a flat plate, drag and lift on bodies. Laminar and Turbulent Flows. Laminar and turbulent flow through pipes, friction factor variation, pipe networks, water hammer, and surge tanks.

Open Channel Flow: Energy and momentum correction factors, uniform and non-uniform flows, specific energy and specific force, critical depth, Friction factors and roughness coefficients, flow in transitions, free overfall, weirs, hydraulic jump, surges, gradually varied flow equations, surface profiles, moving hydraulic jump.

Part-D Environmental Engineering

Water Supply: Estimation of surface and subsurface water resources, predicting demand for water, impurities of water and their significance, physical, chemical and bacteriological analysis, water borne diseases, standards for potable water.

Intake of water: pumping and gravity schemes, water treatment: principles of coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation; slow-, rapid-, pressure-, filters; chlorination, softening, removal of taste, odour and salinity.

Water storage and distribution: storage and balancing reservoir types, location and capacity. Distribution systems: layout, hydraulics of pipe lines, pipe fittings, valves including check and pressure reducing valves, meters, analysis of distribution systems, leak detection, maintenance of distribution systems, pumping stations and their operations.

Sewerage systems: Domestic and industrial wastes, storm sewage-separate and combined systems, flow through sewers, design of sewers, sewer appurtenances, manholes, inlets, juctions, siphon. Plumbing in Public buildings.

Sewage characterisation: BOD, COD, solids, dissloved oxygen, nitrogen and TOC. Standards of disposal in normal water course and on land.

Sewage treatment: Working principles, units, chambers, sedimentation tank, trickling filters, oxidation ponds, activated sludge process, septic tank, disposal of sludge, recycling of waste water.

Construction Management : Elements and principles of Activity on Arrow (AOA) and Activity on Node (AON) networks and work breakdown structure. Interfaces. Ladder networks. Activity time. Time computations and floats. ATC and PTC trade-off. Work study and sampling. Scheduling principles-material schedules. ABC and EOQ analysis of inventory. Budgeting with barcharts. Working capital. PERT, probability of completion.

Elements of Engineering Economics, methods of appraisal, present worth, annual cost, benefit-cost, incremental analysis. Economy of scale and size. Choosing between alternatives including levels of investments. Project profitability.




Engineering Mechanics, Strength of Materials and Structural Analysis.

Engineering Mechanics :

Units and Dimensions, SI Units, Vectors, Concept of Force, Concept of particle and rigid body. Concurrent, Non Concurrent and parallel forces in a plane, moment of force and Varignon’s theorem, free body diagram, conditions of equilibrium, Principle of virtual work, equivalent force system.

First and Second Moment of area, Mass moment of Inertia.

Static Friction, Inclined Plane and bearings.

Kinematics and Kinetics :

Kinematics in Cartesian and Polar Co-ordinates, motion under uniform and nonuniform acceleration, motion under gravity. Kinetics of particle : Momentum and Energy principles, D’ Alembert’s Principle, Collision of elastic bodies, rotation of rigid bodies, simple harmonic motion, Flywheel.

Strength of Materials :

Simple Stress and Strain, Elastic constants, axially loaded compression members, Shear force and bending moment, theory of simple bending, Shear Stress distribution across cross sections, Beams of uniform strength, Leaf spring. Strain Energy in direct stress, bending & shear.

Deflection of beams : Mecaulay’s method, Mohr’s Moment area method, Conjugate beam method, unit load method. Torsion of Shafts, Transmission of power, close coiled helical springs, Elastic stability of columns, Euler’s Rankine’s and Secant formulae. Principal Stresses and Strains in two dimensions, Mohr’s Circle, Theories of Elastic Failure, Thin and Thick cylinder : Stresses due to internal and external pressure–Lame’s equations.

Structural Analysis :

Castiglianio’s theorems I and II, unit load method of consistent deformation applied to beams and pin jointed trusses. Slope-deflection, moment distribution, Kani’s method of analysis and column Analogy method applied to indeterminate beams and rigid frames.

Rolling loads and Influences lines : Influences lines for Shear Force and Bending moment at a section of beam. Criteria for maximum shear force and bending Moment in beams traversed by a system of moving loads. Influences lines for simply supported plane pin jointed trusses.

Arches : Three hinged, two hinged and fixed arches, rib shortening and temperature effects, influence lines in arches.

Matrix methods of analysis : Force method and displacement method of analysis of indeterminate beams and rigid frames.

Plastic Analysis of beams and frames : Theory of plastic bending, plastic analysis, statical method, Mechanism method.

Unsymmetrical bending : Moment of inertia, product of inertia, position of Neutral Axis and Principle axes, calculation of bending stresses.


Design of Structures : Steel, Concrete and Masonry Structures.

Structural Steel Design :

Structural Steel : Factors of safety and load factors. Rivetted, bolted and welded joints and connections. Design of tension and compression member, beams of built up section, rivetted and welded plate girders, gantry girders, stancheons with battens and lacings, slab and gussetted column bases.

Design of highway and railway bridges : Through and deck type plate girder, Warren girder, Pratt truss.

Design of Concrete and Masonry Structures :

Concept of mix design. Reinforced Concrete : Working Stress and Limit State method of design–Recommendations of I.S. codes Design of one way and two way slabs, stair-case slabs, simple and continuous beams of rectangular, T and L sections. Compression members under direct load with or without eccentricity, Isolated and combined footings.

Cantilever and Counterfort type retaining walls.

Water tanks : Design requirements for Rectangular and circular tanks resting on ground.

Prestressed concrete : Methods and systems of prestressing, anchorages, Analysis and design of sections for flexure based on working stress, loss of prestress.

Design of brick masonry as per I.S. Codes

Design of masonry retaining walls.


Fluid Mechanics, Open Channel Flow and Hydraulic Machines

Fluid Mechanics : Fluid properties and their role in fluid motion, fluid statics including forces acting on plane and curve surfaces.

Kinematics and Dynamics of Fluid flow : Velocity and accelerations, stream lines, equation of continuity, irrotational and rotational flow, velocity potential and stream functions, flownet, methods of drawing flownet, sources and sinks, flow separation, free and forced vortices.

Control volume equation, continuity, momentum, energy and moment of momentum equations from control volume equation, Navier-Stokes equation, Euler’s equation of motion, application to fluid flow problems, pipe flow, plane, curved, stationary and moving vanes, sluice gates, weirs, orifice meters and Venturi meters.

Dimensional Analysis and Similitude : Buckingham’s Pi-theorem, dimensionless parameters, similitude theory, model laws, undistorted and distorted models.

Laminar Flow : Laminar flow between parallel, stationary and moving plates, flow through tube.

Boundary layer : Laminar and turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate, laminar sublayer, smooth and rough boundaries, drag and lift.

Turbulent flow through pipes : Characteristics of turbulent flow, velocity distribution and variation of pipe friction factor, hydraulic grade line and total energy line, siphons, expansion and contractions in pipes, pipe networks, water hammer in pipes and surge tanks.

Open channel flow : Uniform and non-uniform flows, momentum and energy correction factors, specific energy and specific force, critical depth, resistance equations and variation of roughness coefficient, rapidly varied flow, flow in contractions, flow at sudden drop, hydraulic jump and its applications surges and waves, gradually varied flow, classification of surface profiles, control section, step method of integration of varied flow equation, moving surges and hydraulic bore.

Hydraulic Machines and Hydropower :

Centrifugal pumps–Types, characteristics, Net Positive Suction Height (NPSH), specific speed. Pumps in parallel.

Reciprocating pumps, Airvessels, Hydraulic ram, efficiency parameters, Rotary and positive displacement pumps, diaphragm and jet pumps.

Hydraulic turbines, types classification, Choice of turbines, performance parameters, controls, characteristics, specific speed.

Principles of hydropower development. Type, layouts and Component works. Surge tanks, types and choice. Flow duration curves and dependable flow. Storage an pondage. Pumped storage plants. Special features of mini, micro-hydel plants.


Geo Technical Engineering

Types of soil, phase relationships, consistency limits particles size distribution, classifications of soil, structure and clay mineralogy.

Capillary water and structural water, effectives trees and pore water pressure, Darcy’s Law, factors affecting permeability, determination of permeability, permeability of stratified soil deposits.

Seepage pressure, quick sand condition, compressibility and consolidation, Terzaghi’s theory of one dimensional consolidation, consolidation test.

Compaction of soil, field control of compaction. Total stress and effective stress parameters, pore pressure coefficients.

Shear strength of soils, Mohr Coulomb failure theory, Shear tests.

Earth pressure at rest, active and passive pressures, Rankine’s theory, Coulomb’s wedge theory, earth pressure on retaining wall, sheetpile walls, Braced excavation.

Bearing capacity, Terzaghi and other important theories, net and gross bearing pressure.

Immediate and consolidation settlement.

Stability of slope, Total Stress and Effective Stress methods, Conventional methods of slices, stability number.

Subsurface exploration, methods of boring, sampling, penetration tests, pressure meter tests.

Essential features of foundation, types of foundation, design criteria, choice of type of foundation, stress distribution in soils, Boussinessq’s theory, Newmarks’s chart, pressure bulb, contact pressure, applicability of different bearing capacity theories, evaluation of bearing capacity from field tests, allowable bearing capacity, Settlement analysis, allowable settlement.

Proportioning of footing, isolated and combined footings, rafts, buoyancy rafts, Pile foundation, types of piles, pile capacity, static and dynamic analysis, design of pile groups, pile load test, settlement of piles, lateral capacity. Foundation for Bridges. Ground improvement techniques–preloading, sand drains, stone column, grouting, soil stabilisation.



Construction Technology, Equipment, Planning and Management

1. Construction Technology :

Engineering Materiels :

Physical properties of construction materials : Stones, Bricks and Tiles; Lime, Cement and Surkhi Mortars; Lime Concrete and Cement Concrete, Properties of freshly mixed and hardened concrete, Flooring Tiles, use of ferro-cement, fibre-reinforced and polymer concrete, high strength concrete and light weight concrete. Timber : Properties and uses; defects in timber; seasoning and preservation of timber. Plastics, rubber and damp-proofing materials, termite proofing, Materials, for Low cost housing.

Construction :

Building components and their functions; Brick masonry : Bonds, jointing. Stone masonry. Design of Brick masonry walls as per I.S. codes, factors of safety, serviceability and strength requirements; plastering, pointing. Types of Floors & Roofs. Ventilators, Repairs in buildings.

Functional planning of building : Building orientation, circulation, grouping of areas, privacy concept and design of energy efficient building; provisions of National Building Code.

Building estimates and specifications; Cost of works; valuation.

2. Construction Equipment :

Standard and special types of equipment, Preventive maintenance and repair, factors affecting the selection of equipment, economical life, time and motion study, capital and maintenance cost.

Concreting equipments : Weigh batcher, mixer, vibration, batching plant, Concrete pump.

Earth-work equipment : Power shovel hoe, bulldozer, dumper, trailors, and tractors, rollers, sheep foot roller.

3. Construction Planning and Management : Construction activity, schedules, job layout, bar charts, organization of contracting firms, project control and supervision. Cost reduction measures.

Newwork analysis : CPM and PERT analysis, Float Times, cashing of activities, contraction of network for cost optimization, up dating, Cost analysis and resource allocation.

Elements of Engineering Economics, methods of appraisal, present worth, annual cost, benefit-cost, incremental analysis. Economy of scale and size. Choosing between alternatives including levels of investments. Project profitability.


Survey and Transportation Engineering

Survey : Common methods of distance and angle measurements, plane table survey, levelling traverse survey, triangulation survey, corrections, and adjustments, contouring, topographical map. Surveying instruments for above purposes. Techeometry. Circular and transition curves. Principles of photogrammetry.

Railways : Permanent way, sleepers, rail fastenings, ballast, points and crossings, design of turn outs, stations and yards, turntables, signals, and interlocking, level-crossing. Construction and maintenance of permanent ways : Superelevlation, creep of rail, ruling gradient, track resistance, tractive effort, relaying of track.

Highway Engineering : Principles of highway planning, Highway alignments. Geometrical design : Cross section, camber, superelevation, horizontal and vertical curves. Classification of roads : low cost roads, flexible pavements, rigid pavements. Design of pavements and their construction, evaluation of pavement failure and strengthening.

Drainage of roads : Surface and sub-surface drainage.

Traffic Engineering : Forecasting techniques, origin and destination survey, highway capacity. Channelised and unchannelised intersections, rotary design elements, markings, sign, signals, street lighting; Traffic surveys. Principle of highway financing.


Hydrology, Water Resources and Engineering :

Hydrology : Hydrological cycle, precipitation, evaporation, transpiration, depression storage, infiltration, overland flow, hydrograph, flood frequency analysis, flood estimation, flood routing through a reservoir, channel flow routing-Muskingam method.

Ground water flow : Specific yield, storage coefficient, coefficient of permeability, confined and unconfined equifers, aquifers, aquitards, radial flow into a well under confined and unconfined conditions, tube wells, pumping and recuperation tests, ground water potential.

Water Resources Engineering : Ground and surface water resource, single and multipurpose projects, storage capacity of reservoirs, reservoir losses, reservoir sedimentation, economics of water resources projects.

Irrigation Engineering : Water requirements of crops : consumptive use, quality of water for irrigation, duty and delta, irrigation methods and their efficiencies.

Canals : Distribution systems for canal irrigation, canal capacity, canal losses, alignment of main and distributory canals, most efficient section, lined canals, their design, regime theory, critical shear stress, bed load, local and suspended load transport, cost analysis of lined and unlied canals, drainage behind lining.

Water logging : causes and control, drainage system design, salinity.

Canal structures : Design of cross regulators, head regulators, canal falls, aqueducts, metering flumes and canal outlets.

Diversion head work : Principles and design of weirs of permeable and impermeable foundation, Khosla’s theory, energy dissipation, stilling basin, sediment excluders.

Storage works : Types of dams, design, principles of rigid gravity and earth dams, stability analysis, foundation treatment, joints and galleries, control of seepage.

Spillways : Spillway types, crest gates, energy dissipation.

River training : Objectives of river training, methods of river training.


Environmental Engineering

Water Supply : Estimation of surface and subsurface water resources, predicting demand for water, impurities, of water and their significance, physical, chemical and bacteriological analysis, waterborne diseases, standards for potable water.

Intake of water :pumping and gravity schemes. Water treatment : principles of coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation; slow-; rapid-, pressure-, filters; chlorination, softening, removal of taste, odour and salinity.

Water storage and distribution : storage and balancing reservoirs : types, location and capacity. Distribution system : layout, hydraulics of pipe lines, pipe fittings, valves including check and pressure reducing valves, meters, analysis of distribution systems, leak detection, maintenance of distribution systems, pumping stations and their operations.

Sewerage systems : Domestic and industrial wastes, storm sewage–separate and combined systems, flow through sewers, design of sewers, sewer appurtenances, manholes, inlets, junctions, siphon. Plumbing in public buildings.

Sewage characterisation : BOD, COD, solids, dissolved oxygen, nitrogen and TOC. Standards of disposal in normal water course and on land.

Sewage treatment : Working principles, units, chambers, sedimentation tanks, trickling filters, oxidation ponds, activated sludge process, septic tank, disposal of sludge, recycling of waste water.

Solid waste : collection and disposal in rural and urban contexts, management of long-term ill-effects.

Environmental pollution : Sustainable development. Radioactive wastes and disposal. Environmental impact assessment for thermal power plants, mines, river valley projects. Air pollution. Pollution control acts.

[Pic: Professional Hmar Mizo top model Nk Cindy Khojol with some of her friends in Mumbai]

Cindy Khojol celebrated her birthday on Oct 9, 2009 at one of Mumbai's happening resort 'Simply Goa' with friends Brinda Parekh, Nisha Harale, Umesh Pherwani, Gary Richardson, Prachi Pitre, Rehan Shah and others.

To view gallery 1 CLICK HERE
To view gallery 2 CLICK HERE
To view gallery 3 CLICK HERE

[Photo: Pi Mawi, London-based Hmar designer]

With the majority of her formative years spent on the move, Mawi (daughter of well known Hmar Mizo litterateur Pu L.Keivom) has found herself continuously immersed and in transit between a vast number of diverse cultures, taking with her a small piece from each of them as she has moved on – artifacts, experiences and influences that remain with her until this day. Collecting vintage trinkets is a passion of Mawi’s and a continually growing repertoire of over a thousand pieces made for ample material for inspiration, experimentation and customization. No longer simply a hobby, the idea of playing around with jewellery became very real when Mawi launched her brand in 2003. Since the extremely successful collection of 2003, Mawi has not stood still. Described as having a life of its own, the Mawi brand continues to attract interest through it’s seasonal metamorphosis whilst managing to stay true to the designer’s signature. Transcending seasonal whims and appealing to those of all ages and tastes, Mawi has well and truly captured a niche in the fashion market for contemporary costume jewellery. Adorn London are delighted to feature Mawi – her jewellery and design integrity remain an inspiration to us.

[Pic below: Spring/Summer 2010 Costume Luxe ‘Dynasty’ collection]

1. Diamonds or Pearls?

2. Leather or lace?

3. One thing we would never guess about you?
That I’m from India.

4. What inspires you?
Life, people, nature, art, culture, music.

5. Your seasonal “must- have”?
Alexander Wang Coco bag.

6. Favourite City?

7. A book you would recommend?
'Love in the time of Cholera' by Gabriel Garcia Marquez.

8. Most treasured piece of jewellery?
My antique Rajasthani tribal gold jewels I got given for my wedding and the first charm necklace that I made which inspired us to start the brand.

9. Favourite item of clothing?
Pyjamas- I usually change into them as soon as I get home. I love comfort !!

10. A “pearl of wisdom”?
Always look on the bright side. We only live once so make the most of it.

To visit Mawi's store online CLICK

[Text&Pic courtesy: Adorn-London]

Following is the new syllabus for IAS Exam Chemistry optional.


1.1 Atomic structure : Schrodinger wave equation, significance of y and y2 quantum numbers and their significance, radial and angular probability, shapes of orbitals, relative energies of atomic orbitals as a function of atomic number. Electronic configurations of elements; Aufbau principle, Hunds multiplicity rule, Pauliexclusion principle.

1.2 Chemical periodicity : Periodic classification of elements, salient characteristics of s,p,d and f block elements. Periodic trends of atomic radii, ionic radii, ionisation potential, electron affinity and electronegativity in the periodic table.

1.3 Chemical bonding : Types of bonding, overlap of atomic orbitals, sigma and pi bonds, hydrogen and metallic bonds. Shapes of molecules, bond order, bond length, V.S.E.P.R. theory and bond angles. The concept of hybridization and shapes of molecules and ions.

1.4 Oxidation states and oxidation number : Oxidation and reduction, oxidation numbers, common redox reactions, ionic equations. Balancing of equations for oxidation and reduction reactions.

1.5 Acids and bases : Bronsted and Lewis theories of acids and bases. Hard and soft acids and bases. HSAB principle, relative strengths of acids and bases and the effect of substituents and solvents on their strength.

1.6 Chemistry of elements :

(i) Hydrogen: Its unique position in the periodic table, isotopes, ortho and para hydrogen, industrial production, heavy water.

(ii) Chemistry of s and p block elements : electronic configuration, general characteristics properties, inert pair effect, allotropy and catenation. Special emphasis on solutions of alkali and alkaline earth metals in liquid ammonia. Preparation, properties and structures of boric acid, borates, boron nitrides, borohydride (diborane), carboranes, oxides and oxyacids of nitrogen, phosphorous, sulphur and chlorine; interhalogen compounds, polyhalide ions, pseudohalogens, fluorocarbons and basic properties of halogens. Chemical reactivity of noble gases, preparation, structure and bonding of noble gas compounds.

(iii) Chemistry of d block elements: Transition metals including lanthanides, general characteristic properties, oxidation states, magnetic behaviour, colour. First row transition metals and general properties of their compounds (oxides, halides and sulphides); lanthanide contraction.

1.7 Extraction of metals : Principles of extraction of metals as illustrated by sodium, magnesium, aluminium, iron, nickel, copper, silver and gold.

1.8 Nuclear Chemistry : Nuclear reactions; mass defect and binding energy, nuclear fission and fusion. Nuclear reactors; radioisotopes and their applications.

1.9 Coordination compounds : Nomenclature, isomerism and theories of coordination compounds and their role in nature and medicine.

1.10 Pollution and its control : Air pollution, types of air pollutants; control of air and water pollution; radioactive pollution.

(Organic Chemistry)

2.1 Bonding and shapes of organic molecules : Electronegativity, electron displacements-inductive, mesomeric and hyperconjugative effects; bond polarity and bond polarizability, dipole moments of organic molecules; hydrogen bond; effects of solvent and structure on dissociation constants of acids and bases; bond formation, fission of covalent bonds : homolysis and heterolysis; reaction intermediates-carbocations, carbanions, free radicals and carbenes; generation, geometry and stability; nucleophiles and electrophiles.

2.2 Chemistry of aliphatic compounds: Nomenclature; alkenes-synthesis, reactions (free radical halogenation) -- reactivity and selectivity, sulphonation-detergents; cycloalkanes-Baeyers strain theory; alkenes and alkynes-synthesis, electrohilic addition reactions, Markownikovs rule, peroxide effects, 1- 3-dipolar addtion; nucleophilic addition to electron-deficient alkenes; polymerisation; relative acidity; synthesis and reactions of alkyl halides, alkanols, alkanals, alkanones, alkanoic acids, esters, amides, nitriles, amines, acid anhydrides, a, ß-unsaturated ketones, ethers and nitro compounds.

2.3 Stereochemistry of carbon compounds : Elements of symmetry, chiral and achiral compounds. Fischer projection formulae; optical isomerism of lactic and tartaric acids, enantiomerism and diastereoisomerism; configuration (relative and absolute); conformations of alkanes upto four carbons, cyclohexane and dimethylcyclo-hexanes-their potential energy. D, L-and R, S-notations of compounds containing chiral centres; projection formulae-Fischer, Newman and sawhorse-of compounds containing two adjacent chiral centres; meso and dl-isomers, erythro and threo isomers; racemization and resolution; examples of homotopic, enantiotopic and diasteretopic atoms and groups in organic compounds, geometrical isomers; E and Z notations. Stereochemistry of SN1, SN2, E1 and E2 reactions.

2.4 Organometallic compounds : Preparation and synthetic uses of Grignard reagents, alkyl lithium compounds.

2.5 Active methylene compounds : Diethyl malonate, ethyl acetoacetate, ethyl cyanoacetate-applications in organic synthesis; tautomerism (keto-enol).

2.6 Chemistry of aromatic compounds : Aromaticity; Huckels rule; electrophilic aromatic substitution-nitration, sulphonation, halogenation (nuclear and side chain), Friedel-Crafts alkylation and acylation, substituents effect; chemistry and reactivity of aromatic halides, phenols, nitro-, diazo, diazonium and sulphonic acid derivatives, benzyne reactions.

2.7 Chemistry of biomolecules : (i) Carobhydrates : Classification, reactions, structure of glucose, D, L-configuration, osazone formation; fructose and sucrose; step-up step-down of aldoses and ketoses, and ther interconversions, (ii) Amino acdis : Essential amino acids; zwitterions, isoelectric point, polypeptides; proteins; methods of synthesis of a-amino acids. (iii) Elementary idea of oils, fats, soaps and detergents.

2.8 Basic principles and applications of UV, visible, IR and NMR spectroscopy of simple organic molecules.

Section-C (Physical Chemistry)

3.1 Gaseous state : Deviation of real gases from the equation of state for an ideal gas, van der Waals and Virial equation of state, critical phenomena, principle of corresponding states, equation for reduced state. Liquification of gases, distribution of molecular speed, collisions between molecules in a gas; mean free path, speicific heat of gases

3.2 Thermodynamics : (i) First law and its applications: Thermodynamic systems, states and processes, work, heat and internal energy, zeroth law of thermodynamics, various types of work done on a system in reversible and irreversible processes. Calorimetry and thermochemistry, enthalpy and enthalpy changes in various physical and chemical processes, Joule-Thomson effect, inversion temperautre. Heat capacities and temperature dependence of enthalpy and energy changes.

(ii) Second law and its applications : Spontaneity of a process, entropy and entropy changes in various processes, free energy functions, criteria for equilibrium, relation between equilibrium constant and thermodynamic quantities.

3.3 Phase rule and its applications : Equilibrium bewteen liquid, solid and vapours of a pure substance, Clausius-Clapeyron equation and its applications. Number of components, phases and degrees of freedom; phase rule and its applications; simple systems with one (water and sulphur) and two components (lead-silver, salt hydrates). Distribution law, its modifications, limitations and applications.

3.4 Solutions : Solubility and its temperature dependence, partially miscible liquids, upper and lower critical solution temperatres, vapour pressures of liquids over their mixtures, Raoults and Henrys laws, fractional and steam distillations.

3.5 Colligative Properties : Dilute solutions and colligative properties, determination of molecular weights using colligative properties.

3.6 Electrochemistry : Ions in solutions, ionic equilibria, dissociation constants of acids and bases, hydrolysis, pH and buffers, theory of indicators and acid-base titrations. Conductivity of ionic solutions, its variation with concentration, Ostwalds dilution law, Kohlrausch law and its application. Transport number and its determination. Faradays laws of electrolysis, galvanic cells and measurements of their e.m.f., cell reactions, standard cell, standard reduction potential, Nernst equation, relation between thermodynamic quantities and cell e.m.f., fuel cells, potentiometric titrations.

3.7 Chemical kinetics : Rate of chemical reaction and its dependence on concentrations of the reactants, rate constant and order of reaction and their experimental determination; differential and integral rate equations for first and second order reaction, half-life periods; temperature dependence of rate constant and Arrhenius parameters; elementary ideas regarding collision and transition state theory.

3.8 Photochemistry : Absorption of light, laws of photochemistry, quantum yield, the excited state and its decay by radiative, nonradiative and chemical pathways; simple photochemical reactions.

3.9 Catalysis : Homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis and their characteristics, mechanism of heterogeneous catalysis; enzyme catalysed reactions (Michaelis-Menten mechanism).

3.10 Colloids : The colloidal state, preparation and purification of colloids and their characteristics properties; lyophilic and lyophobic colloids and coagulation; protection of colloids; gels, emulsions, surfactants and micelles.


1. Atomic structure

Quantum theory, Heisenbergs uncertainity principle, Schrodinger wave equation (time independent). Interpretation of wave function, particle in one-dimensional box, quantum numbers, hydrogen atom wave functions. Shapes of s, p and d orbitals.

2. Chemical bonding

Ionic bond, characteristics of ionic compounds, factors affecting stability of ionic compounds, lattice energy, Born-Haber cycle; covalent bond and its general characteristics, polarities of bonds in molecules and their dipole moments. Valence bond theory, concept of resonance and resonance energy. Molecular orbital theory (LCAO method); bonding in homonuclear molecules: H2+, H2 to Ne2, NO, CO, HF, CN, CN–, BeH2 and CO2. Comparison of valence bond and molecular oribtal theories, bond order, bond strength and bond length.

3. Solid State

Forms of solids, law of constancy of interfacial angles, crystal systems and crystal classes (crystallographic groups). Designation of crystal faces, lattice structures and unit cell. Laws of rational indices. Braggs law. X-ray diffraction by crystals. Close packing, radious ratio rules, calculation of some limiting radius ratio values. Structures of NaCl, ZnS, CsCl, CaF2, CdI2 and rutile. Imperfections in crystals, stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric defects, impurity defects, semi-conductors. Elementary study of liquid crystals.

4. The gaseous state

Equation of state for real gases, intermolecular interactions, liquefictaion of gases and critical phenomena, Maxwells distribution of speeds, intermolecular collisions, collisions on the wall and effusion.

5. Thermodynamics and statistical thermodynamics

Thermodynamic systems, states and processes, work, heat and internal energy; first law of thermodynamics, work done on the systems and heat absorbed in different types of processes; calorimetry, energy and enthalpy changes in various processes and their temperature dependence.

Second law of thermodynamics; entropy as a state function, entropy changes in various process, entropy–reversibility and irreversibility, Free energy functions; criteria for equilibrium, relation between equilibrium constant and thermodynamic quantities; Nernst heat theorem and third law of thermodynamics.

Micro and macro states; canonical ensemble and canonical partition function; electronic, rotational and vibrational partition functions and thermodynamic quantities; chemical equilibrium in ideal gas reactions.

6. Phase equilibria and solutions

Phase equilibria in pure substances; Clausius-Clapeyron equation; phase diagram for a pure substance; phase equilibria in binary systems, partially miscible liquids–upper and lower critical solution temperatures; partial molar quantities, their significance and determination; excess thermodynamic functions and their determination.

7. Electrochemistry

Debye-Huckel theory of strong electrolytes and Debye-Huckel limiting Law for various equilibrium and transport properties.

Galvanic cells, concentration cells; electrochemical series, measurement of e.m.f. of cells and its applications fuel cells and batteries.

Processes at electrodes; double layer at the interface; rate of charge transfer, current density; overpotential; electroanalytical techniques–voltameter, polarography, ampero-metry, cyclic-voltametry, ion selective electrodes and their use.

8. Chemical kinetics

Concentration dependence of rate of reaction; defferential and integral rate equations for zeroth, first, second and fractional order reactions. Rate equations involving reverse, parallel, consecutive and chain reactions; effect of temperature and pressure on rate constant. Study of fast reactions by stop-flow and relaxation methods. Collisions and transition state theories.

9. Photochemistry

Absorption of light; decay of excited state by different routes; photochemical reactions between hydrogn and halogens and their quantum yields.

10. Surface phenomena and catalysis

Absorption from gases and solutions on solid adsorbents, adsorption isotherms,–Langmuir and B.E.T. isotherms; determination of surface area, characteristics and mechanism of reaction on heterogeneous catalysts.

11. Bio-inorganic chemistry

Metal ions in biological systems and their role in ion-transport across the membranes (molecular mechanism), ionophores, photosynthesis–PSI, PSII; nitrogen fixation, oxygen-uptake proteins, cytochromes and ferredoxins.

12. Coordination chemistry

(a) Electronic configurations; introduction to theories of bonding in transition metal complexes. Valence bond theory, crystal field theory and its modifications; applications of theories in the explanation of magnetism and electronic spactra of metal complexes.

(b) Isomerism in coordination compounds. IUPAC nomenclature of coordination compounds; stereochemistry of complexes with 4 and 6 coordination numbers; chelate effect and polynuclear complexes; trans effect and its theories; kinetics of substitution reactions in square-planer complexes; thermodynamic and kinetic stability of complexes.

(c) Synthesis and structures of metal carbonyls; carboxylate anions, carbonyl hydrides and metal nitrosyl compounds.

(d) Complexes with aromatic systems, synthesis, structure and bonding in metal olefin complexes, alkyne complexes and cyclopentadienyl complexes; coordinative unsaturation, oxidative addition reactions, insertion reactions, fluxional molecules and their characterization. Compounds with metal-metal bonds and metal atom clusters.

13. General chemistry of ‘f’ block elements

Lanthanides and actinides; separation, oxidation states, magnetic and spectral properties; lanthanide contraction.

14. Non-Aqueous Solvents

Reactions in liquid NH3, HF, SO2 and H2 SO4. Failure of solvent system concept, coordination model of non-aqueous solvents. Some highly acidic media, fluorosulphuric acid and super acids.


1. Delocalised covalent bonding : Aromaticity, anti-aromaticity; annulenes, azulenes, tropolones, kekulene, fulvenes, sydnones.

2(a) Reaction mechanisms : General methods (both kinetic and non-kinetic) of study of mechanism or organic reactions illustrated by examples–use of isotopes, cross-over experiment, intermediate trapping, stereochemistry; energy diagrams of simple organic reactions–transition states and intermediates; energy of activation; thermodynamic control and kinetic control of reactions.

(b) Reactive intermediates : Generation, geometry, stability and reactions of carbonium and carbonium ions, carbanions, free radicals, carbenes, benzynes and niternes.

(c) Substitution reactions : SN1, SN2, SNi, SN1/, SN2/, SNi/ and SRN1 mechanisms; neighbouring group participation; electrophilic and nucleophilic reactions of aromatic compound including simple heterocyclic compounds–pyrrole, furan thiophene, indole.

(d) Elimination reactions : E1, E2 and E1cb mechanism; orientation in E2 reactions–Saytzeff and Hoffmann; pyrolytic syn elimination–acetate pyrolysis, Chugaev and Cope eliminations.

(e) Addition reactions : Electrophilic addition to CºC and C=C; nucleophilic addition to C=O, CºN, conjugated olefins and carbonyls.

(f) Rearrangements : Pinacol-pinacolune, Hoffmann, Beckmann, Baeyer–Villiger, Favorskii, Fries, Claisen, Cope, Stevens and Wagner-Meerwein rearrangements.

3. Pericyclic reactions : Classification and examples; Woodward-Hoffmann rules—clectrocyclic reactions, cycloaddition reactions [2+2 and 4+2] and sigmatropic shifts [1, 3; 3, 3 and 1, 5] FMO approach.

4. Chemistry and mechanism of reactions : Aldol condensation (including directed aldol condensation), Claisen condensation, Dieckmann, Perkin, Knoevenagel, Witting, Clemmensen, Wolff-Kishner, Cannizzaro and von Richter reactions; Stobbe, benzoin and acyloin condensations; Fischer indole synthesis, Skraup synthesis, Bischler-Napieralski, Sandmeyer, Reimer-Tiemann and Reformatsky reactions.

5. Polymeric Systems

(a) Physical chemistry of polymers : Polymer solutions and their thermodynamic properties; number and weight average molecular weights of polymers. Determination of molecular weights by sedimentation, light scattering, osmotic pressure, viscosity, end group analysis methods.

(b) Preparation and properties of polymers : Organic polymers–polyethylene, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride, Teflon, nylon, terylene, synthetic and natural rubber. Inorganic polymers–phosphonitrilic halides, borazines, silicones and silicates.

(c) Biopolymers : Basic bonding in proteins, DNA and RNA.

6. Synthetic uses of reagents : OsO4, HIO4, CrO3, Pb(OAc)4, SeO2, NBS, B2H6, Na-Liquid NH3, LiA1H4 NaBH4 n-BuLi, MCPBA.

7. Photochemist : Photochemical reactions of simple organic compounds, excited and ground states, singlet and triplet states, Norrish-Type I and Type II reactions.

8. Principles of spectroscopy and applications in structure elucidation

(a) Rotational spectra–diatomic molecules; isotopic substitution and rotational constants.

(b) Vibrational spectra–diatomic molecules, linear triatomic molecules, specific frequencies of functional groups in polyatomic molecules.

(c) Electronic spectra : Singlet and triplet states. N–>p* and p–>p* transitions; application to conjugated double bonds and conjugated carbonyls–Woodward-Fieser rules.

(d) Nuclear magnetic resonance : Isochronous and anisochronous protons; chemical shift and coupling constants; Application of H1 NMR to simple organic molecules.

(e) Mass spectra : Parent peak, base peak, daugther peak, metastable peak, fragmentation of simple organic molecules; a cleavage, McLafferty rearrangement.

(f) Electron spin resonance : Inorganic complexes and free radicals.


October 26, 2009 zana Delhi Hmar Welfare Association le Hmar Steering Committee inkhawm chun tu kum December thla bula Delhi-a Sikpui Kut hmang pha leh Award chi hnih- Men/Women of the Century Award le kha hmaa DHWA-in a lo pek hlak ang kha pek a remti bakah award pek dinga rotna hunghai chu khon khawm le buk a, pek tlaka ngaihai chu thlang suoktu dingin DHWA Award Jury Panel mi panga a ruot a.

Kum khat beka inhmaa lo thaw lawk awm thil a ni lai zingin, thla khat chauh hun a um tah leiin chanchinbu le website hrang hrang hmanga hma lak a trul makmaw a. Chuleiin , tu khom hi Award dong dinga awm le phua ei hriethai hming, an nina (biodata) le pek an phuna san tlawmngaia hung pe dingin Jury Panel Chairman ka ninain ka hung fiel cheu a nih.

Nomination pek dan ding chu hieng ang hin a nih:
Category I: DHWA Centenary Award.
Category II : DHWA General Award.

A thei chun nomination hi ka mail: keivom@rediffmail. com le l_keivom@yahoo. com a pakhat lem lemah thon thei a nih.

Daka thonhai chun L.Keivom, C-408 Purvasha, Mayur Vihar -1, Delhi 110091 Phone 22757630 MB 9868213252.

DHWA Award Jury Panel
October 27, 2009

Following is the new syllabus for IAS Exam Botany optional.


1. Cell Biology : Structure and function of cell wall (extracellular matrix or ECM), cell membrane and cell organelles. Nucleus, nucleolus, nuclear pore complex (NPC), chromosome and nucleosome. Mitosis, meiosis, molecular control involving checkpoints in cell division cycle. Differentiation, cellular senescence.

2. Genetics, Molecular Biogy and Biotechnology : Laws of inheritance. Concept of gene and allelomorph. Linkage, crossing over and gene mapping. Structural and numerical changes in chromosomes and gene mutations. Sex determination and differentiation. Structure and synthesis of nucleic acids and proteins. Genetic code. Regulation of gene expression. Genetic engineering and crop improvement. Protoplast, cell, tissue and organ cultures. Somatic hybridization. Biofertilizers and biopesticides. Biotechnology in agri-horticulture, medicine and industry.

3. Tissue Systems : Origin, development, structure and function of primary and secondary tissues.

4. Plant Diversity and Systematics : Structure and function of plant forms from evolutionary aspects (viruses to Angiosperms including fossils). Principles of nomenclature, classification and identification of plants. Modern approaches in plant taxonomy. Recent classification of living organism into three groups (bacteria, archaea and eukarya).

5. Plant Physiology: Water relations. Mineral nutrition. Photosynthesis. Respiration. Nitrogen metabolism. Enzymes and coenzymes. Dynamics of growth, growth movements, growth substances, photomorphogenesis. Secondary metabolites. Isotopes in biological studies. Physiology of flowering.

6. Methods of Reproduction and Seed Biology : Vegetative, asexual and sexual methods of reproduction. Pollination and fertilization. Sexual incompatibility. Development, structure, dormancy and germination of seed.

7. Plant Pathology : Diseases of rice, wheat, sugarcane, potato, mustard, groundnut and cotton crops. Factors affecting infection (host factors, pathogen factors, biotic factors like rhizosphere and phyllosphere organisms). Chemical, biological and genetic methods of disease control (including transgenic plants).

8. Plant and Environment : Biotic and abiotic components. Ecological adaptation. Types of vegetational zones and forests of India. Deforestation, afforestation, social forestry and plant introduction. Soil erosion, wasteland, reclamation. Environmental pollution and its control (including phytoremediation). Bioindicators. Global warming.

9. Biodiversity, Plant Genetic Resources: Methods of conservation of plant genetic resources and its importance. Convention of Biological Diversity (CBD). Endangered, threatened and endemic taxa. Role of cell/tissue culture in propagation and enrichment of genetic diversity. Plants as sources of food, fodder, forage, fibres, oils, drugs, wood and timber, paper, rubber, beverages, spices, essential oils and resins, gums, dyes, insecticides, pesticides and ornamentation. Biomass as a source of energy.

10. Origin of Life and Evolution: Basic concepts of origin of earth and origin of life. Theories of organic evolution, molecular basis of evolution.



1. Microbiology and Plant Pathology: Viruses, bacteria, and plasmids-structure and reproduction. General account of infection, Phytoimmunology. Applications of microbiology in agriculture, industry, medicine and pollution control in air, soil and water.

Important plant diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, mycoplasma, fungi and nematodes. Mode of infection and dissemination. Molecular basis of infection and disease resistance/defence. Physiology of parasitism and control measures. Fungal toxins.

2. Cryptogams: Algae, Fungi, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes-structure and reproduction from evolutionary viewpoint. Distribution of Cryptogams in India and their economic potential.

3. Phanerogams: Gymnosperms: Concept of Progymonosperms. Classification and distribution of Gymnosperms. Salient features of Cycadales, Conferrals and Gnetales, their structures and reproduction. General account of Cycadofilicales, Bennettitales and Cordaitales.

Angiosperms: Systematics, anatomy, embryology, palynology and phylogeny.

Comparative account of various systems of Angiosperm Classiification. Study of angiospermic families–Magnoliaceae, Ranunculaceae, Brassicaceae (Cruci-ferae), Rosaceae, Leguminosae, Euphorbiaceae, Malvaceae, Dipterocar-paceae, Apiaceae (Umbelliferae), Asclepiadaceae, Verbenaceae, Solana-ceae, Rubiaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Asteraceae (Composite), Poaceae (Gramineae), Arecaceae (Palmae), Liliaceae, Musaceae, Orchidaceae.

Stomata and their types. Anomalous secondary growth, Anatomy of C 3 and C 4 plants.

Development of male and female gametophytes, pollination, fertilization. Endosperm–its development and function. Patterns of embryo development. Polymbryony, apoxmix, Applications of palynology.

4. Plant Utility and Exploitation:

Origin of cultivated plants, Vavilovs centres of origin. Plants as sources for food, fodder, fibres, spices, beverages, drugs, narcotics, insecticides, timber, gums, resins and dyes.

Latex, cellulose Starch and their products. Perfumery. Importance of Ethnobotany in Indian context. Energy plantation. Botanical Gardens and Herbaria.

5. Morphogenesis: Totipotency, polarity, symmetry and differentiation. Cell, tissue, organ and protoplast culture. Somatic hybrids and Cybrids.

1. Cell Biology: Techniques of Cell Biology. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells -structural and ultrastructural details. Structure and function of extracellular matrix or ECM (cell wall) and membranes-cell adhesion, membrane transport and vesicular transport. Structure and function of cell organelles (chloroplasts, mitochondria, ER, ribosomes, endosomes, lysosomes, peroxisomes, hydrogenosome). Nucleus, nucleolus, nuclear pore complex. Chromatin and nucleosome. Cell signalling and cell receptors. Signal transduction (G-1 proteins, etc.). Mitosis and meisdosis; molecular basis of cell cycle. Numerical and structural variations in chromosomes and their significance. Study of polytene, lampbrush and B-chromosomes–structure, behaviour and significance.

2. Genetics, Molecular Biology and Evolution: Development of genetics, and gene versus allele concepts (Pseudoalleles). Quantitative genetics and multiple factors. Linkage and crossing over–methods of gene mapping including molecular maps (idea of mapping function). Sex chromosomes and sexlinked inheritance, sex determination and molecular basis of sex differentiation. Mutation (biochemical and molecular basis). Cytoplasmic inheritance and cytoplasmic genes (including genetics of male sterility). Prions and prion hypothesis.

Structure and synthesis of nucleic acids and protines. Genetic code and regulation of gene expression. Multigene families.

Organic evolution-evidences, mechanism and theories. Role of RNA in origin and evolution.

3. Plant Breeding, Biotechnology and Biostatistics: Methods of plant breeding -- introduction, selection and hybridization (pedigree, backcross, mass selection, bulk method). Male sterility and heterosis breeding. Use of apomixis in plant breeding. Micropropagation and genetic engineering–methods of transfer of genes and transgenic crops; development and use of molecular markers in plant breeding.

Standard deviation and coefficient of variation (CV). Tests of significance (Z-test, t-test and chi-square tests). Probability and distributions (normal, binomial and Poisson distributions). Correlation and regression.

4. Physiology and Biochemistry: Water relations, Mineral nutrition and ion transport, mineral deficiencies. Photosynthesis–photochemical reactions, photophosphorylation and carbon pathways including C pathway (photorespiration), C, C and CAM pathways. Respiraion (anaerobic and aerobic, including fermentation–electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation. Chemiosmotic theory and ATP synthesis. Nitrogen fixation and nitrogen metabolism. Enzymes, coenzymes, energy transfer and energy conservation. Importance of secondary metabolites. Pigments as photoreceptors (plastidial pigments and phytochrome). Photoperiodism and flowering, vernalization, senescence. Growth substances-their chemical nature, role and applications in agri-horticulture, growth indices, growth movements. Stress physiology (heat, water, salinity, metal). Fruit and seed physiology. Dormancy, storage and germination of seed. Fruit ripening -- its molecular basis and manipulation.

5. Ecology and Plant Geography: Ecological factors. Concepts and dynamics of community. Plant succession. Concepts of biosphere. Ecosystems and their conservation. Pollution and its control (including phytoremediaion).

Forest types of India -- afforestation, deforestation and social forestry. Endangered plants, endemism and Red Data Books. Biodiversity. Convention of Biological Diversity, Sovereign Rights and Intellectual Property Rights.

New Delhi, October 24, 2009: A six members INPT delegation met the Indian Prime Minister, Dr. Manmohan Singh on 22nd Oct at his resident for nearly an hour to seek a political solution to their charter of demands. The meeting was led by Mr. Bijoy Kumar Hrangkhawl & Veteran Party leader Shyama Charan Tripura. The much awaited meeting was to submit their long standing five charters of demands before the Union Government of India.

During their brief meeting with Prime Minister, the visiting members of INPT also submitted a memorandum. Mr. Hrangkhawl urged upon the Union Govt. to take firm step and an effort to look into their demands.

During their visit to the capital, Dr. Manmohan Singh assured the visiting delegation members that the centre is ready to give more power to TTAADC and will see the future course of action in the coming days.

Mr. Rajeshwar Debbarma Said, "the meeting was very cordial and Pleasant". "The Prime Minister assured us that he will take all possible measure and steps to see that a political solution is met and achieved at the appropriate time", he added.

The delegation members also met Home Minister P. Chidambram, on 23rd Oct evening to discuss their charters of demands. During their interaction with home minister, Mr.Jagadish Debbarma, one of the visiting members of the delegation said, Mr. Home Minister also expresses the need of Regional Party; it's necessary and important for the sake of the indigenous people in the state. Mr. Chidambram also expresses that the left government is reluctant to share and give more power to the TTAADC Government, he added.

According to INPT leaders, the Home Minister also advice the visiting members to forward a copy of resolution which was passed in the floor of the house in Tripura Legislative Assembly on 7th April, 2006.

Mr. Kantilal Bhuria, Tribal Affairs Minister, also assured the members that a high level official team will be sent to inquire about the Indigenous People of Tripura, especially on the issue of Forest Rights Act. The six members also held a round of brainstorming talk with Mr. G K Pillai, Indian Home Secretary and Mr. V Narayanasamy, General Secretary, AICC and also In-charge of Tripura. Mr. Narayanasamy assured that he will talk to Prime Minister on the issue of INPT demands.

The following five charters of demands that were submitted to the various ministries by INPT delegation members during their visits to capital,

1. More Power to the TTAADC in the line of Bodo Territorial Council,
2. To enlist KOKBOROK language in the Eight Scheduled of the Indian Constitution,
3. Detection and deportation of illegal foreign nationals must be strict conformity of Indira Mujib accord with the specific cut off date on 25th of march, 1971(Population explosion due to illegal infiltration of foreign nationals in Tripura state is undoubtedly one of the prime contributory factors behind the unrest and outbreak of insurgency in the state),
4. Immediate revoke of Armed Forces Special Power Act-1958 from Tripura,
5. To debar Other (Non-Tribal) traditional forest dwellers from the principle of Forest Act 2006.

Will the INPT demands open a new avenue for the indigenous people of Tripura or are they trying to buy time, are remaining to be seen in days to come.

Source: Tiprasa

New Delhi, Oct 25, 2009: A PhD scholar of IIT Delhi has been arrested in connection with the alleged attempted rape and murder of a Naga girl, police said today.

Pushpam Kumar Sinha (34), a Phd scholar at IIT, Delhi, and staying in a first floor rented apartment at Munirka in South Delhi, was arrested for allegedly trying to rape 19-year-old Ramchanphy Hongray and later killing her, they said adding that the incident happened yesterday.

Police said Sinha, hailing from Patna in Bihar, tried to sexually assault the girl, who was also putting up in a second floor apartment of the same building. When the girl resisted his advances, Singha strangled her and later burnt her using the gas stove.

Hongray's body was found in Vasant Vihar area here yesterday by her neighbours who alerted police.

A case has been registered in connection with the crime, police said.

Courtesy: PTI


[By Pu L.Keivom*, Inpui Columnist]
Though God cannot alter the past, historians can. (Erewhon Revisited)
-Samuel Butler (1835-1902)

Ka thu buon tum hi buon châkum tak, sienkhom huphurum tak bok si a nih. Buon châk a umna san chu a poimaw bèk bék lei le indawi vêtna le inhril varna hmangruoa hmang thei ve ve a ni lei a nih. Buon huphur a umna san chu a huop lien taluo a, artikul pakhata thun tum chu arbawma saipui thun tum ang le Rairate tienamia thrim tieta rulpui insukchìn anga thaw ve a ngai ding lei a nih. A ieng khom chu ni sien, hi thu hi ka ziekna san la hang hril phot ei tih.

October 2-3, 2009 khan Aizawl tlanga Mizo Zirlai Pawl (MZP) buotsai ZOFEST 2009-a thuhriltu dinga an mi fiel leiin Delhi tlanga inthokin ka hang thrang a. ZOFEST hi Zo hnathlak hnam hrang hranghai insuikhawm nawkna ding thupuia neia an huoihot hlak a nih. Kum 2002 khan ZOFEST hmasa tak chu Churachandpur-ah hmang a ni a, tuta hi a voi lina a nih. Mizoram puo tienga inthoka inchuklai pawl hrang hrang palai hunghai chu: Bangladesh-a inthokin Bawm; Tripuraa inthokin Chawrei, Hrangkhol, Kaipeng, Muolsuom, Ranglong; Assam-a inthokin Biete; Manipura inthokin Kharam, Kuki, Gangte, Kom, MZP, Paite, Simte, Vaiphei, Zo; Chin Hills-a inthokin Zanniat (Falam) an nih. Chawimawina an pekhai chu 1972 Olympic boxing-a Burma aiawa thrang Vanlaldawla; Asian Games-a Bangladesh Hockey Team Captain Zomuana Ralte; le Sudden Muanga ziektu Lalsangzuala (Laisaizawks) hai an nih. Cultural Dance inentira ZOFEST hongtu chu Hmar Students’ Association an nih.

ZOFEST hi airuochingin a sukbuoi inlauna leiin Lammuola hmang nekin Vanapa Hall-ah hmang a ni a. Puongtu fel tak Lalmalsawmi (Mali) le K.Biakthianghlima haiin hnesaw takin an thruoi a. Prokram karlak hun inawngah Zo hnathlakhai hung thlang tlak dan chanchin an hung zep sa hlak a, a bengvar thlak hle. Mizoram-a Zo hnathlakhai hung thlang tlak dan chanchin, B.Lalthangliana ziek besana hmanga an hung puong chu a’n dik le indik naw thu puongtuhai chun chawl lailawkah an mi hung indon a. Kei chun, “B. Lalthanglien hin Zahmuok thlahaiin Mizoram an hung lut hun chauh kha Zo hnathlakhaiin Mizoram ei hung hluo hunah a sie a. Hienghai hung thlang tlak hma kum 300 lai khan Zo hnahthlak hnam threnkhat, abikin Old Kuki tiha hriethai, voisuna ei inkhawma hung thranghai hi an lo thlang tla ta a, Tripura, Cachar le Chittagong Hills Tract chen an inzar dar hman tah a nih. Hi thu hi Zoram Khawvel-a khom ka ziek rop ta a. B.Lalthanglien histawri ramri kham hi ei hmang ding a ni chun ei unau, abikin Bangladesh, Tripura le Assam-a inthoka hunghai hi Mizo ninaa inthokin ei hnawl vong tina ning a ta, ei ZOFEST thuthlung ‘Insuihkhawm leh zai i rel ang aw’ ti khom hi ei bawsiet ning a tih” tiin tlang takin ka hril fie a. Chu hnung chun an fimkhur thiem ta hle.

Histawri hi mi kei khawmtu a ni thei ang bokin mi kei dartu a ni thei bok a. Dan naranin histawri hi thuneina fung cheltuhai dit dan zawnga an tranghma kei taka ziek a ni nuom rop. Hi lei hin Lusei lalhai opna hnuoia chenghai histawri ziek, abikin thranghlui tienghai zieka hin Luseihai chanchin uor taka ziek an chìng a, Lusei trong hmanghai chauh Mizo-ah an bel bok a, an thaw dan dan chu Mizo thilah an sie bok. Entirna pakhat chauh hang hril inla. ‘Zawlbuk’ hi Lusei lalhaiin Mizoram an hung lut hnunga Pawi ral laka invengna dinga an duong suok a nih. Rikrum thilah tlangvalhai an chet nghal theina dingin khaw tinah riek khawmna riebuk an siem, chu chu ‘Zawlbuk’ an tih. Lusei ni lo Pawi (Fanai) inlalna Mizorama khuo 13-ah zawlbuk hi an hung nei ve ti naw chu Zo hnathlak dangin an nei ve ngai nawh. Sienkhom, Lusei lalhai inlalna hnuoia an thaw dan a ni leiin zawlbuk hi Zo hnathlakhai po poin inthuruolna, inthununna le tlawmngaina nun inchukna sikul ei nei sun niin an hung hril lut a. Chu chu zawlbuk nei ngai lohai khomin tak sawnin, zawlbuk neia inhril vein, a poimawzie thu ei chanchin inziekna le sikul text-book a hai chen ei ziek chier dup el a nih.

Hriet dinga poimaw chu, Luseihai histawri ringotin Zo hnathlak po po ai a aw thei nawh ti hi a nih. Aw thei dinga ei ngai a ni chun Zo hnathlak tam lem chu puo tieng ei hnawl tina a nih. Zawngin a mong khawn a hmu nawh ti ang khan, an histawri puo tienga an siehai kha ‘Mizo’ inti nuom loa dam an intum letling hlauh hlak a nih. Hi chânga char hin Hmar histawri ziektu threnkhat le phuokfawm histawri an mi hril, nghet taka awituhai khom ei intàng ve a, a tam lemin ei intàng a nih ti khom ei hriet nawh. Chu chu tar lang malam dingin hi artikul hi ka ziek a nih.
Histawri & Histawrian
Histawri (history) ei ti hi tienthu, hun liem taa mihriem thil thaw le khuorel thil tlungin kakhawk a nei pei dan chanchin suina a nih. A suitu le chîk taka bi-a a thil hmu le hriet hai ziek thlatu chu ‘Histawrian’ a nih. Histawrian chu histawri siemtu le ziektu a ni nawh. Mi tin, sungkuo, khawtlang, hnam le ram tin hai hi ei nun le thilthawa mani histawri seng ni tina siemtu le ziektu chu ei ni lem. Chu khêla chun khuorel hrim hrim, mihriemin ieng ei law thei lo dam le inveng fimkhur chun ei pumpel thei thil tam tak a um bok a. Chuong thil tlunghai le a nghawnghai chu sui a, inchik a, indota a hriet anga rem khawm a, a thlirna tukvera inthoka histawri inkhina hmol hmanga thil tlung san le a kakhawk pei dan nia a hmu le hriet hai inlai taka zieka sietu chu ‘histawrian’ a nih.

Thil hnung sui ding chun sirsana hmang tlak sulhnung hmawr iemani bek hriet a ngai. Sa hnung sui ang deuh a nina lai a um. Sa hnung ei sui a, a hniek lien le chin chier dup el ei hmu a. Chuong sa hniek chier dup lai chun ei sa sui hniek hriet a ngai a. A châng chun ei sa zui tak hniek kha sui hlei thei loa sa dang hniekin a chil khum vong chang a um hlak. Sui suok tuma bei ngar ngar chun ei hniek sui kha hmun dangah sui zom thei dinga a hung inlang nawk chang a um bok. Hniek inlang thei lona hmuna lem chu hniek ringot hmanga sui thei a ni naw leiin, sui thei dan dang zong a ngai. Chu dinga tu laia an hmang hlawk tak chu chi zungzam inmatna suina Genetic research a nih.

Entirnan, eini rawi chanchin hmang inla. Hun hrang hrangah China rama inthokin hnam hrang hrang ei inpèm suok a. A threnin sim tieng ei pan a, Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia, Cambodia, Thailand le Burma (Myanmar) ah ei inzar dar a. Sim thlang pana hung thla pei hai chu Burma, India hmar sak ram le Bay of Bengal Tuipuia zuk inkhaw lut Chittagong Hills Tract (Bangladesh) le Arakan (Rakhine) chen ei inzar phar ve thung a. Hnam hrang hranga hung insiemin, trong hrang hrang hmangin ei hung indar a, hnam upa le inbul tak ni ei inchu seng bok a. Zo hnathlak po po hi hlawm khata intêl khawm khomin tumbailok tiet chauh ei ni laiin, trong hrang hrang 47 chuongin ei la hang inthre dar nawknghal a, chu ruol chun hnam hrang nina hauh seng ei tum bok a. Chuonghai laia hnam pakhat chauh chanchin sui bing tum chu bupawl vum thûr laia thrim chite inhmang zong ang a nih. Sui fie nuomna luota tienami phuok sa treuh khom ei bo nawh.
Kong dangin hang hril fie tum inla. Hmawng lien tak, China rama zungpui thlak, Asia sim ram le sim thlang ram, mêl sang tam tak dâpa inzâr, a kâu tam tak trawl le thi tak, sienkhom kâu thar, zung thar le dawn thar insuo peia inzâr lien deu deuh ang a nih. Zo hnathlakhai hi chu hmawng zâr kâu za tam laia a rieu pakhat ve ang ei ni a, hnam hrang hranga insâlhai hi hna khat seng ang chauh ei nih. Chuong hna tin chun bul tak nina inchu ei tum seng leiin mani histawri chit sukupatna dingin ei chanchinah tienami, thurachi, thusim le phuokfawm thu kanglang tak tak ei bel sa seng a. Chuleiin, Zo hnathlakhai histawrihai hi a sai sa nuoi el a nih. Uiin luok a bun a, a hung invèl nawkin a luok bok chu mi êk sawna inhnik ti taka a fak angin ei khèl phuokfawm a hung invel nawk pha leh bu tak sawnin ei beng pùk púk a, mani dawi sa fain ei inrui a; khêl phuok huoi huoi chu ei histawri hre chiengtuah ei ngai el a nih.

Chu thila chun Hmar hnathlak intihai khom hi ei duoi bik nawh. Ei hma thruoitu tak khom ei histawrian hmasa tak nia ei ngai, Hmar History (1958) buotsaitu Hranglien Songate kha a ni ka ring. Kum 1970-74 lai khan, ka rawi upa L.Rokung, kum 2003-a muol liem tah leh bel chieng dawl deuh meta siempui tumin nasa takin hma kan lakpui a, chanchin tam tak kan khon khawm sa bok a. Ka thawpuina san chu a lekhabu kha Hmar History ti hming puta Hmar tronga lekhabu pieng hmasa tak a ni tlat leiin histawri ziek dan kalhmang hraw deu meta siem phuisuipui ka nuom lei a nih. Chu ding chun histawria hlu lut thei chin po ka thlier hrang a, a dang po chu thusim (myths) le thurachi (legends/folklores) hnuoiah sung khawmin Bung linaah ka sie khawm a. Chuonga ei thaw chun, trobul thu ei lo pam puom rak hai hi mutpuom (balun) inthre angin a hung inthêp dang el a nih. Inthêp sien khom bel chieng a dawlin inza a um ve thung a, chanchin la hung sui peihai ta dingin sullhnung indik a kawkhmu bok a nih.

Hi thil kan buoipui lai hin kan ngaidan a khuongruol naw a. Ka thawpuihai ngaidan chu, “Eini nêka thu le hla hlui hre lem an um ta naw ding a ni leiin ei hlu lut ang ang chu thrangtharhan thudikah an hung pom el ding a nih” ti a nih. Uong thu chang naw sien, kei ruok chu naupang tè ka ni laia inthoka histawria inhnik, M.A chen histawri sakzek la le sorkar sin ka thaw hnung khoma inchuk zom zing ka ni leiin, khêl le chokpol histawri chu ieng anga tlor le ngainuomum khom ni sien, dîla saidawium ruok nam phùm ang a nizie le iemani chen pil sien khom hun tuifawnin a la hung lèn suok hun a um ngei ngei hlak ti hre chiengtu ka ni leiin, “Eini lêt tama lungvar nei le thil hre lem thrangthar hung suok pei an ta, ei thu le hla hlu luthai hi bel chieng dawla an hriet naw chun thudik ei hlu luthai chen khom thrang sain an la hung hnawl vong bakah thukhêla hnam chawm chu an inthrang a fûk ngai nawh” tiin ka thrang ve thung a. Chu chu tu chena ka ngirhmun chel a la nih.
Phuokfawm histawri
Kum 2008-a Churachandpur-a kan zin trumin Rengkaia ka ruolpa Joseph Lalrothang, Zonal Education Officer inah ka leng a. Kaseta an khum, thuhril dangdai tak le ngainuomum tak el an lo ngaithlak lai hi a ni a. Thuhriltu chun Hmarhai trobul, Israel ram le Aigupta rama inthoka tranin a hung phok suok a, Sikpui hlapui besana hmangin Tuipui Sen a’n kàntir a, Sinai thlalerah nghok pawt khopin mana a’n tlantir a, Mosie tui sun suok indawntirin an siltir hem hem a. Manase hnam kha Manmasi hnamah a’n lettir bok a. Israel rama inthokin China ramah a hung thruoi tung a, a tawpah India hmar sak ram a hung thruoi lut tah hram a nih. A pui rep rep khop el. Makti taluoin ka hmulthi a’n ding uoi uoi a, khawsik thramin a mi thram a ni tak.

Hi tienami hriltu thu phuok thiem dan chu, Sahara thlalera cheng khom ni sien, hausakna khop pilvut zor thei hiela mawi a nih. Hi tienami hriltu hming hi ka’n don leh Rev. H.V.Sunga a ni thu an mi hril a. A thukhawchang hi hmanga an beramhai chawm pawl thiempu mi iemani zat ka hmu tah bakah thrang hlui lekhabu ziektu taphot deuthawin ei sakhaw thar histawri le ei hnam histawri chokpol hi an thil inruipui a ni tlat chu tie! An thlarau bek chu inhmang sa lo dingin beisei inla. Hi ei tienami phuokfawm hin mi ieng zat hiel am thruoi suolin, kristien sakhuo bansanin Juda sakhuo-ah ei inluttir ta a? Eini lai sipvir lukhum khum fir fera Inrinnia Sabat inser pawlhai hi Sikpui Hlapuia intol thlu pawl an ni deuh vong a nih. Tlûkna inumtirtu chung rikzie thu Isu hril kha ei chunga tlung ding ni pal sien chu, ei tuor a sâ hle el thei a nih.
Phuokfawm histawria intàng hi thil trium tak a nih. Ei histawri ei suinaah, induthaw taluo leia ram tin kei kop tum, entirnan, ‘manna’ chu ‘iemana’ tia suoka hril dam, Manase chu Manmasi, Himalayas chu Hihmalawi, Irrawady chu Airawdung, Chindwin chu Chindung, Mar chu Hmar tinaa ngai dam hi mani le mani inhlemna dawi sa fak ang char a nih. Ei hlaah ‘Sinlung’ a um lei ela China ram hmun pakhata ‘Sinlung’ ti hming lo inziek ve chu ei hung suokna hmun ni ngei dinga baptisma zuk inchangtir ei nuom el dam hi tui tlain insanhimna dinga rûl chen khom a chel thu an hril leh a danglamna a um nawh.

Hi ei hril hin ei hung suokna nia pipuhai thil lo hril Sinlung hi khêl a nih ei tina a ni nawh. Chun, hnam naupang ei nih tina khom a ni chuong bok nawh. Trobul hla tak nei ei ni a, ei zung inphanna khom China ram daiah a nih. Amiruokchu, tu laia hnam hrang hrang hming ei hung put tranna ruok hi chu hun sawt a la ni naw a, histawri inkhina hmol ei hmang lem chun zani laia thil tlung ang chauh a nih. Upat lem ni nuomna luota ei chanchin le tienami le hnam puon le làm chen ei inchu dam hi sul khat kuol ei nizie tar langtu sàkhi a nih. Vai nuhmeihai inthuomna sàri hi ei hnam incheina thuom a ni ngai naw leiin tu khomin ei inchupui ka la hriet ngai nawh.

Hmar hming pieng hun
Lungnona thrang loa histawri inkhina hmanga chîk taka tuta Zo hnathlak hnam hrang hrang hai inkona hming hung suok dan hi ei sui chun, a tam lem hin Lusei trong hmanghai mi kona hming ei som a nih: Hmar, Lakher, Pawi, Paite, Ralte, Vaiphei. Tuta Hmar pahnam hrang hrang, Old Kuki ti hnuoia sie, pahnam hminga inko zinghai hi a tu khom ‘Hmar’ ti hming a suok hma daia inpem suok vong an nih. Chun, Hmar hnathlakhai chanchin, tienami, hla hlui le dawi hla a ienga khom ‘Hmar’ ti hming hi hmu ding a um nawh, a la pieng tlat naw leiin. Ka hriet dan chun, lekhabua a chuong hmasakna tak chu 1904-a sut, G.A. Grierson buotsai ‘Linguistic Survey of India, Volume III Part III a na; a hung inlang nawkna chu 1912-a sut Lt. Col. J.Shakespear ziek ‘The Lushei-Kuki Clans’ ah a nih.

Kuki tia lo kotu Bengalihai zuk paw hmasatu tak chu tu laia ‘Hmar hnathlak’ tia hriethai hi an nih. An zuk pawna hun, rikawta inthoka hisap thei chu 1450-1500 AD vel kha a nih. Chuong lai le tu chena khom inkona hming tlanglawn hmang nuom loa mani pahnam hminga inko deu vong an la nih. An hnunga hung Thado-Haokip-Khuongsai haiin ‘Kuki’ ti hming hi inkona tlanglawnah an hung hmang leiin tu chen hin an put tah pei a nih. Chun, ‘Hmar’ ti hming hung piengna hi 1850 hnung tieng niin a’n lang bok. Chu umzie chu, Tripuraa thlang tla hmasa, Old Kuki tia hriet, tuta Hmar hnathlak tia hriethai thlang tlak hnung kum 400 velah ‘Hmar’ hming hi a hung pieng chauh a nih. Manipura Hmar hnathlak threnkhat, entirnan Anal le Chawthe haiin Manipur an lutna huna an rikawt le ‘Hmar’ hming piengna inkara khom hin kum 300 vel a tla bok a nih.
Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Tripura le hmun hrang hranga khawsa ei unauhai lai tirko ei tir a, thil chinchang ieng khom inchuktir hmasa si loin ei sezawl insuo top a. An rongbawlnahai kuomah, “Hmar ni si, ieng dinga Hmar in inti nuom naw? Ieng leia Hmar trong in hmang naw?” dam an ti tah mei mei a. Hmar hming a pieng hma daia ei unau bul le ziding lem, ei trong bul neitu le hmangtu an ni lem ti ngaituo nachang ei hriet nawh. An nina le inbul lemna pompui a, “Keini a hnukhawia thranghai chun a hran senga pahnam hminga inko nekin hming tlanglawnah ‘Hmar’ ti hi kan hmang lem an tah” ei ti ruok chun lien lema insung lut nuom naw tu khom an um nawh. Hriet ding poimaw chu, rawl tawp insuoin, “EICH EM AA AR Hmar hi a lo nih, pi le pu chen khoma an lo sak sa” tiin voi sang tam inawi hlak inla khom, khêl ei hril inruol rawn mei mei chauh a nih. ‘Hmar’ hming hi pi le pua inthoka an lo sak sa a ni nawh, pi le pua ei ngaihai an la hnai hle a ni pal ngot naw chun.

A tawi thei ang takin, ‘Hmar’ hming ei hung put dan le ‘Hmar Trong’ ei ti hi a hung suok dan hang hril ei tih. Mizorama chambang, Hmar hnathlak pahnam hrang hrang, Lusei lalhai opna hnuoia khawsahai kha Lusei lalhai an hung indo phing leh remchanga lain tam tak hmar tieng panin an suok a, chuonghai chu ‘Hmarho’ tiin an ko a, pahnam seng hminga inko nekin chu hming chu inkona hming tlanglawna an hung hmang leia hnam hminga hung pieng tah pei a nih. Chu thil chu 1850 vela intran niin a’n lang. Chun, ‘Hmar Trong’ ei ti khom hi Lusei lalhai opna hnuoia Hmar hnathlak pahnam hrang hrang trong le Dulien-Lusei trong inchok pola inthoka trong thar hung suok, Hmar hnathlak thlang lo tla hmasahaiin ‘Khawsak Trong’ tia an ko hlak chu a nih. Hi trong hi Chanchin Thra puong darna hmangruoa hmang hmasa tak a ni leiin a hung inthrang hlut hlut a, lekha tronga hmang a hung ni a, College chena vernacular sabzeka hmang thei Major Indian Languages (MIL) laia pakhata Manipur le Assam sorkarin an pom hiel a hung ni phak tah a nih.

Hmar hnathlak hrang hrang, thlang tla hmasa le hmar tieng pana Manipur rama inzar dar hmasa hieng Aimol, Anal, Biete, Chawthe (Chothe), Chawrai (Chorei), Chiru (Rhem/Hriem), Darlong, Hrangkhol, Kaipeng, Kharam, Kolhren (Koireng), Kom, Lamkang (Lamjang), Molsuom, Purum, Ranglong (Langrong), Sakechek le a dang dang hai hi ‘Hmar’ hming a pieng hma daia lo inpem dar tah an ni leiin, mani pahnam hminga tribal list-a lo inziek lut an um a ni khomin makti ding a ni nawh. A thren chu an hming put hmasa tak ‘Kuki’ hnuoiah an la um zing.
Lien lema ei thlir chun, Kabaw phaia inthoka Chin Hills tieng ei kai lai khan tuta inkonaa Zo hnathlak hnam hming hrang hrang ei neihai hi a ieng khom a la pieng nawh niin a’n lang. ‘Lusei’ tia inkohai khom ei hang bi chieng chun, a ziding tak le lal thlaa inngaihai hi Chin Hills-a inthoka Mizoram tieng an thlang tlak tawm ruoia sungkuo, an pa Paite (Zahmuok), an nu Hmar (Lawiler) a inthoka hung suok an nih. Hi nupahai histawri indina inthok hin a tawpah Mizoram hi a hung pieng a nih. Amiruokchu, anni hung thlang tlakna hun hi Zo hnathlakhaiin Mizoram an hung hluo tranna anga histawri ei ziek chun Lusei trong hmang ve lohai po ei hnawl tina a ni a, chu chu thil infuk lo, hnam insuikhawmna lampuia tlukna khur le dalna lungpui a nih. Hi thil lei hin hi artikul hi ka ziek pha a nih. Histawrian fimkhur chun histawri indik a ziek ding a nih.

Chun, hnam hming thil ringot khom ni loin, ei sakhuo biek dan le ei pielral lutna lampuia ei ngai khom a la hnaiin, mong inlang kûka inthrung a la nih. Mithi khuo panna, pielral lutna lampui ni dinga ei ring chu Trieu vadung sak el, Ri Dil (Hri Li), Burma le Mizoram inrìna bul ela um a nih. Hi lai hmuna hin ei Hringlang Tlang, ei Lunglo Tui, ei Hawilopar, ei Mithi Khuo le ei Pielral khawvel khom a’n thlung vong a nih. Ei hung thlak pei a, Khawlêk khaw bulah Thlanpiel Kot, mithihai hraw hlak lampui ei hung nei nawk a. Chu taka inthoka fe peiin Haflong suo tienga Ngaiban Tlang ei ti hming khom hi a hung pieng tah pei a nih. ‘Fâng’ ei ko changa hmun hming ei sàm inzing tak hlak khom ‘Hri Li le Champhai’ an nih. Hieng lai hmun ei hluo lai hin pahnam hming ngota inko ei la ni a, ei khaw maksanhai khom pahnam le a siperhai hming put vong an nih: Thriek, Zote, Chonsim, Khawzawl, Khawbung, Biete, Darngawn, Keivom Zo le a dang dang. Chun, Tripura, Cachar le Manipur tienga an inzar dar hmaa an lo cheng khawmna nia an hril chu Ruonglevaisuo (Tipaimukh) a ni a, Hmar hnathlak tam tak ta dinga an Sinlung-2 a nih. Hi hmun le inzom chanchin inzawt ding khom an hau hle. Chu chu ‘Hmar’ ti hming a pieng hma kum 200-300 vela thil tlung a nih. Hi thila hin ei chieng pha leh Hmar hnathlakhai inkara insuikhawmna kot khom hung inhong lien pei el a tih. Chuong ang char chun, ‘Mizo’ ninaah ei chieng pha leh Zo hnathlakhai inzomna khom hi hril tam ngai loin hung hrat pei bok a tih. A pumbil tum bik ei um pha leh ei trè hlak a nih.

Thu kharna
Hieng hi thil um dan a ni leiin, Zo History hi fimkhur tak le inlai taka ziek a ngai a. Chuong ang lekhabu Saptronga pieng hmasa tak chu Vumson ziek ZO HISTORY ti hi a ni ka ring. B. Lalthangliana buotsaih INDIA, BURMA & BANGLADESH-A MIZO CHANCHIN (2001 p.824)) hi histawri ruongam puta duong lekhabu changtlung le hmang tlak um sun a la ni hri a. Sienkhom, baksamna iemani zat a nei a, chuonghai laia mi chu ei thu buon hi a nih. Chuong baksamnahai chu sut nawk pha an hung siem phuisui pei beisei inla. Hi lekhabu hin kha hmaa phuokfawm tienami, histawri anga mi tam takin ei lo pom hlak tam tak chu inkhina indik lema a hriet hmangin huoisen takin a hung hnawl thlak bakah hun bi thre hrang hrang sungah a hung khum a, lawm a um takzet a nih. Histawri chu thudik zong mi histawrianhai kutah sie inla, a him tak. Phuokfawm histawri chu ieng anga ropui le mawi khom ni sien a tlo ngai naw a, a phuoktu hnamhai khom an tlo ngai bok nawh. Thudik hi inza a um tak a, hnam chawmna dingin a thra tak a, a tlo tak bok.
[*Editor's Note: INPUI columnist Pu Keivom is a retired Indian Foreign Service officer, respected Hmar Mizo litterateur and author of 'Zoram Khawvel' series. This article is dated October 20, 2009, New Delhi]
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