Halloween party ideas 2015

The Lucknow bench of the Allahabad High Court pronounced its judgment on the Babri Masjid-Ram Temple title suits today afternoon by suggesting a three-way solution.
Main features of the verdict:-
  • *Property to be divided between Hindus and Muslims
  • *1/3 for Sunni Waqf Board, 1/3 for Nirmohi Akhara, 1/3 for Ram Lalla
  • *Hindus to get part where idols are kept
  • Division of land to start in three months
  • Building was not used by Muslims to pray: Court
  • Disputed structure cannot be treated as a mosque
  • Disputed site is birthplace of Lord Ram

SHDC Mizoram Anti Dam Protest 2_thumb[2] Aizawl: Hundreds ofpeople representing villages to be affected by the proposed five hydel projects in the northeastern part of Mizoram staged a protest rally against the dams in Aizawl yesterday.

The rally was organised under the banner of Sinlung Indigenous People Human Rights Organisation (SIPHRO), which has been actively spearheadingthe proposed 1500 MW Tipaimukh dam, to be built on the river Barak in Manipur.

The activists also submitted a memorandum to the Governments of Mizoram and Manipur and theGovernment of India, urging them to rethink before implementing the projects.

The memorandum bore the signatures of village council presidents, NGOs and political parties of all the affected 14 villages.
”All our the small and big rivers (Tuiruong and Tuivai – Tipaimukh Dam 1500 MW, Tuivai-210 MW, Serlui-12 MW, Tuivawl-40 MW, Tuirail-60 MW) in Mizoram’s Sinlung Hills Development Council areas are proposed to be dammed,” the memorandum stated.

”When Mizoram requires only 160 MW for its own consumption, the imposition of these projects clearly points to the extermination of our land and people in the name of development,” the memorandum said.

Moreover, these projects are without the knowledge, consent and approval of the Sinlung Hills Development Council (SHDC) and the Hmar people, it said.

More pictures Here


Submitted by Sinlung Indigenous Peoples Human Rights Organisation (SIPHRO) and Sinlung Peoples Collective

To, 28th September 2010

Shri Lal Thanhawla
Hon’ble Chief Minister of Mizoram

Subject: Implement Moratorium on Dams in Sinlung Hills, Mizoram.


All our small and big rivers (Tuiruong and Tuivai - Tipaimukh Dam (1500 MW), Tuivai (210 MW), Serlui- (12 MW), Tuivawl ( 40 MW), Tuirial (60 MW) in Mizoram’s Sinlung Hills are proposed to be dammed. When Mizoram requires only 100-160 MW for its own consumption, the imposition of these projects in our small land clearly points to the extermination of our land and people in the name of development. Moreover, these projects are without our knowledge, consent and approval. We were never informed, consulted or intimated in any manner regarding these destructive projects that are already threatening us in our ancestral land. These projects are undemocratic and imposed upon us.anti-dam-aizawl-iPhone

Serlui B hydel project has already pushed our people out of our land, alienated our people from their stable livelihood system and deprived us of our citizenship and democratic rights. Villages affected by the Serlui B Hydel project are already in a state of environmental refugees. Worse, the major share of compensation out of Serlui B project and Tuirial Multipurpose Hydro Electric Project were bagged by the rich, influential and powerful lots from Mizoram’s Aizawl; people who were never affected by these projects. These projects are indiscriminate and inhumane in all its form. They should never be allowed to take shape in the name of development. Our experiences with small hydel projects show that there is lax or near absent regulatory mechanisms, which in turn cause environmental degradation and large-scale displacement of people. The implementing agencies, both the State as well as non-State agencies, are merely institutionalizing injustice in the name of development. The deprived tribals should not be allowed to be further marginalized from their land and of their Constitutional rights.

The proposed projects failed to be transparent in all its planning process. All information’s about these dams that, otherwise, are supposed to link, inform and educate the affected people did not reach them. Information has become a costly property in the hands of the few powerful groups who will never be affected by the dam, but who sought monetary compensation, contract job and other benefits from the project. The entire covert practice is a negation of the Fundamental Rights of the marginalized tribals who will be affected by these projects.

Despite the high-risk the proposed projects embody, it not only fails to inform the threatened people about the possible adverse impact, but also fails to represent their approved consent. In short, these projects did not take into consideration the existence of the tribals/indigenous peoples and their rights. The tribals have no role or say in any stages of the decision making process that, otherwise, should require their active participation. The entire evolved process has made it evident that the proposed projects are not people friendly projects.

Instead of informing and educating the threatened tribals, the implementing agency, the State actors as well as non-State actors, took advantage of the ignorance of the information deprived tribals who will be severely impacted by these projects. The unwanted conduct is a discrimination and negation of the Fundamental Rights of the tribals.

The Government of Mizoram’s experiences with Dams is marred with failure. This is evident with the cases of Serlui ‘B’ project, Kau Tlabung and Tuipang Hydel Project. The Government of Mizoram should withdraw from its adventurous attempt to dam all our small and big rivers in Sinlung Hills, in the name of development, when it severely failed to achieved good practices with the small projects. It is our humble request that the Government of Mizoram reconsiders its policy on dams and focus on the welfare of its people, their citizenship and democratic rights.

Similarly, with a poor and failed record of implementing policies on dams and any development projects, breakdown of law and order and governance, the Government of Manipur does not qualify to be one of the implementing agencies to dam our rivers by playing with the lives of its citizens, forests, rivers, and rights in the name of development. When the Government of Manipur is incapable of reforming its governance, law and order, it should rather review its existing practices with development projects before taking up Tipaimukh Dam. The Government of Manipur should not exploit the strength of its militarized State to built Tipaimukh Dam. We cannot bear to afford militarization taking over the destructive project, our land, rivers and forests. The Government of Manipur should not conveniently exploit the draconian Armed Forces Special Powers Act (AFSPA) to pursue the controversial project. There can be no compensation for the social, human, security and environmental cost and crisis that it will create for the tribals who will be affected. The controversial project is increasing social, economic and political exclusion and injustice for the tribals. The Government of Manipur is institutionalizing injustice to the Hmars and other affected communities by the project. Furthermore, it will alienate the people and their rights from their ancestral land, forest, rivers, and natural resources.

We, the people of Sinlung Hills, do not give our consent and approval to the recently signed (April 28, 2010) Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) between the Government of Manipur, National Hydro-electric Power Corporation (NHPC) and Shimla-based Satluj Jal Vidyut Nigam Limited (SJVN) for the construction of Tipaimukh Dam, by damming our river Tuiruong and Tuivai. Besides destroying hundreds of kilometers of our virgin forest and jhum land, the proposed project will directly affect fourteen (14) villages in Sinlung Hills, Mizoram: Sawleng, Darlawn, New Vervek, Sailutar, Sakawrdai, Khawlek, Vaitin, Vanbawng, Khawpuar, Suangpuilawn, Ratu, Phullen, NE Tlangnuam, and Lungsum. We shall not allow these projects to ruin, plunder and rob our right to life. We shall not allow the Government of Manipur to capitalize its militarized power and invade our land and rivers, our dignity and freedom.

The implementing agencies of these projects did not disseminate any information regarding these destructive structures. We have no confidence in any of the implementing agencies who will plunder and ruin our land, rivers and people for their profit driven interests.

We would like to draw your kind attention to NHPC’s track record with hydro-power which is alarmingly poor in all the important aspects. If one looks at NHPC’s performance, in case of Indira Sagar and Omkareshwar in Madhya Pradesh, Chamera I and II projects in HimachalPradesh, Loktak project in Manipur, Koel Karo project in Jharkhand, Lower Subansiri project in Arunachal Pradesh, Teesta Low Dam stage III project in North Bengal, Salal and Uri projects in Jammu and Kashmir, Dul Hasti project in Jammu and Kashmir, Baira Saul project in Himachal Pradesh and Tanakpur and Dhauliganga projects in Uttaranchal, Rangit project in Sikkim, it is evident that NHPC severely failed in good practices, creating irresponsible disaster to land, people and resources, displacing people without proper relief, rehabilitation and resettlement measures, violating human rights, huge cost and time overruns, causing construction related disaster, poor social and environmental standards. In many cases NHPC did not even have an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Social Impact Assessment as well. Worst, NHPC have also, in many cases, failed to avail free, prior information for the affected people. Many times, NHPC pursue its projects without informing the targeted people about public hearings. In short, NHPC has been involved in severe violations of current Indian environment norms. We shall not allow such irresponsibility and inhumane activities to repeat in our land.

Moreover, the only safe areas that will not be affected by these dam projects are targeted to be converted into Pualreng Wildlife Sanctuary. In this pursuit, the authorities are doggedly scheming to purchase the community and private land and forests of four villages- Khawdungsei, Mauchar, Zohmun and Palsang. These villages have been asked to received their share of “compensation” and vacate their villages. These villages have taken resolution to live on their ancestral land and not to take any such “compensation”. Despite strong protest lodged by the authorities of these villages, the State authorities failed to take heed of their humane stand.

We are strongly against the indiscriminate attempt of the State authorities to push the villagers out of their land to make way for a wildlife sanctuary. It is our humble demand that the concerned authorities immediately stop its inhumane activities and allow our peopled to peacefully co-exist with our land, forests and rivers.

The unbridled pursuit of monetary profit by few individuals at enormous environmental, social and human cost will inevitably lead to the growing alienation and deprivation of our people in our own land. The implementing agencies, without the prior, informed consent of the affected people, had breached obligations to respect and protect the Constitutional and democratic rights of the Hmar people and other communities. Moreover, we are not aware of any of the mandatory Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), Social Impact Assessment (SIA), and our entitlements. These projects, by destroying our rivers, forests, land and people, will only benefit few, but influential and powerful coterie.

The proposed projects are not people’s friendly projects and stand against any democratic principles. It is our sincere request to the Government of Mizoram to respect the time honored Hmar- Mizo tribal customs, rights, traditional land holdings system and not to give its approval for any clearance to any of these projects.

In the pursuit of justice, fairness, respect by realizing our Constitutional rights, the marginalized peoples of Sinlung Hills,Mizoram demands that:

1. The implementing agencies, State as well as non-State actors should immediately rethink, implement moratorium and withdraw from pursuing these destructive projects and save our land and people from irreparable destruction. The State as well as non-State actors ought to know that our land, rivers and forests are the backbone of our existence and survival. Our citizenship and democratic rights that are integrally embedded with our land, forests and rivers must be safeguarded and protected for all time to come.

2. The haves and influential coterie from Mizoram and Manipur should stop their selfish quest for securing contract job and compensation by negating the ancestral dwellers.

3. There should be Constitutional Safeguards for securing and developing our land, our people, our rights and our future.

Copy to:


1. His Excellency MM Lakhera, Governor of Mizoram.

2. Home Minister of Mizoram.

3. Minister of Environment and Forests.

4. Press.

5. NGOs.


1. Prime Minister of India

2. Shri P Chidambaram, Union Home Minister.

3 Jairam Ramesh, Union Minister for Environment and Forests.

4. Shri Naveen Verma, Joint Secretary, North East, Ministry of Home Affairs.


1. Chief Minister of Manipur

2. CMD, NEEPCO, Shillong, Meghalaya.

3. CMD, NHPC, Faridabad.

By Pu L.Keivom*, Inpui Columnist

Hi artikul hi Hmar tronga fangfar (famfar) umzie inziekna um sun a ni el thei-Editor

New York Diary 6 a khan ka ziek tum tak chu khawvela fangfar pûk ropui tak le mawi tak nia an hril hiel, Luray Caverns kan sir thu a nih. Amiruokchu, lamlakah titina ding a tam leiin a chanchin ka ziek tlung hmain a lo sei taluo hman a, pûk sir hman loin ka tawp tah ringot a. Tuta trum hin chu, pûk chanchinah inbûr ngat ngat ei tum ding a nih.

Zo hnathlakhai trobul ei sui zata ei tawp chatna chu pûk a nih. Chu pûk chu a hmingah Sinlung ei tih. Israelhai chanchin ei sui khomin, an pu Abrahamin Palestina rama ke nghatsan a phumna hmasa tak chu a nuhmei Sari phumna ding Hit mi Efron kuoma inthoka tangkaruo shekel zalia hmun a’n chawk, Makpela pûk a nih. Hi pûk hi sim le hmar zawnga tlang inkham phei Judai tlangram (Judean mountains) sim tawp hmawra khuo, Hebron-a um a nih. Hi khuo hi Judahai chun Kiriath Arba an tih. Hi pûka hin sulsutu Abraham hai, Isak hai le Jakob hai chu an phum a, hmun thienghlima an ngai a nih. Isu pieng kum vela thi Herod Lien (Herod The Great) khan hi pûk hi kul ropui takin a’n huon khum a. Kum sanghni hnung, September 1993-a ka sir chun zani lai ela bawl angin a kul chu a la thra. Hi pûk hi Juda hai, Kristien hai le Muslim-haiin hmun thienghlima an ruot seng leiin neitu nina inchuin an inbakkei rop hlak a. An inchunaa tu chena thisen suok tah po po hi intling khawm sien, dil lien tham fe a sip tah ring a um. Makpela pûk chu Judahai le Muslimhai ta dingin an Sinlung a nih.

new-york-city-libertyPuk fanga ramsuok (cave exploration) hi British Saptrong chun ‘speleology’ an ti a, America Saptrong chun ‘spelunking’ an ti thung. Pûk hi a tlangpuiin chi hni a um a, pûk hring (live cave) le pûk thi (dead cave) a nih. Pûk hring chu dannaranin fangfar (famfar) puk a ni deu vong. ‘Fangfar’ ti pawl le ‘famfar’ ti pawl ei um a, kei ngei khomin ‘fangfar’ ka ti hlak a, sienkhom a trong bula inthoka ei sui chun ‘famfar’ ti hi indik lem mei a tih. An leh ‘fangfar’ chu iem a na? Puk chunga inthoka a silinga tui hung fam thlain dawn a siem hi a nih. Chu tui damtea hung fam thla chun a hungna lampuia lungbuot dam, pil inhnak dam, chinai lung dam, thir chi hrang hrang tuithli dam le thil dang dang thli, damdawi (chemicals) chi hrang a hung fenhai chu hnuoiah inthlit fimin, a tuithli fir chauh puk chunga chun tuiril angin a hung fam thla a, puk silinga a hung fam suok chun a thren hnuoiah a far thla a, a thren chu a farna hmuna chun a khir angin a hung king a, chu king inthuo chu a hung lien pei a, purun bal ang deu hin a hung inthrang a, hun sawtah rawtuoi dawn, a hmawr chena inzum zata khe angin a hung inkhai thla a, chu chu fangfar ei ti hi a nih. Kong khata hril chun, fangfar chu ‘puk dawn’ ti thei a ni bok. Inches khat biela lien, kutpui bok tiet vela sei indawnna dingin a tlawm takah kum 120 bek a ngai. Hienga puk silinga inthoka hung indawn thla hi ‘stalactite’ ti a na, hnuoia a farnaa inthoka hung indawn tung chu ‘stalacmite’ an tih. A hmasa hi ‘fangfar’ ti inla, a nuhnung hi ‘famfar’ ti inla, a remchang hle ka ring.

Ei pi le puhai chun fangfar umna puk chu ramhuoi chengna hmun nia an ngai leiin, chuong ang hmun chu loin an nei ngam ngai nawh. Ka la hriet zing chu, kum 1952 khan Pherzawl ram sim tawp, Zangkum (Zopui) tlang bul thruta fangfar umna, mi trisim hlak chu loin kan nei a. Chu hma chun tu khomin loin an nei ngam ngai naw hi a lo ni a. A kawl hnai loa neihai khom a threnin natna khir tak invoiin, a threnin an thipui hiel niin an hril thang bok a; ngai bel thei awm chanchin khom a lo um hrim a. Fangfar umna bul hnai lem chu tu la vat ngai lo hrim hrim a ni leiin thing khom zengpui tiet tiet a la ngir khup a. Chu rampui chu kan thriek a. Ka u Hrangthatlur hrat vanglai a ni bok a, thramte daw a, thing bul lien tak tak hreipuia a hang phur chu, a thing hlok thlak har chu a vuongin a vuong dar uoi uoi a, a mi deng pal tri a um leiin a bul hnaia um ngam khom a ni nawh. Sawtnawteah thing lien tak tak khom an inawt thlu ruoi ruoi el a nih. Video neiin a thla lo la inla chu, hmu nuomum tling ngei a tih. Chu lai chu hmarcha bilin kan nei a, phur seng lo ti ding hiel kan tharsuok a nih.

Chuonga ramhuoi chengna buzawla ngai, fangfar umna loa kan nei el chu a mi lo inlaupui ngiel ngiel an um a. Amiruokchu, ramhuoihai hnetu Isu ringtu sungkuo kan nina chu phawa hmanga chu ram ser chu huoi taka ner kan ni leiin, hri le hrai lakah Lalpan a mi veng a, iengkhom ti loin, kum khat fak chuong bu le bal intharin kum kan suo a nih.

Kan lo rala ram ngawpui chu Zangkum ram a na, a ram thleng a’n ruol naw lei le trenbaram deu a ni leiin loa nei thei chi a ni naw a. Vate ratlan, abikin hmawng thing a tam a. A tuoltro zawngtra kung khom iemani zat a um a, kur thlek thlukin a ra a, a buk a’n sang leiin tu khomin lo tinah an tin nawh. Ni tinin thing lera saha le ngau ruol inban le infiem khek ri hriet le hmu ding a um zing a. Vapuol hon, a thren chu hmur sei chi, rangkek ei ti, lu inlok bur le hmur sen vut el, ratlan pana an vuong hlup hlup lai dam hmu ding a um zing bok a. A’n khattawkin, sakhi an hung inphawt dat dat a, chu chu lo don ni awm hrimin inri teng tungin saha le ngau ruol chu an hung inhulruk hlak a. An hlimna ri chu lo zawm vein, rawnal tawtawrawt sei tak el ka siem chu kei khomin ka lo mut hlak a nih. Kum sawmnga chuong liem tah thil a nia chu ka mitthlaa chu voisuna thil tlung ang topin a la thar a nih. Hieng thil hi a nih ka ngaituona ril hluotu, ka hlaa,

Puolrang thla khawng, muol tin hrutin,

Van zai an rem, mawi chuong rengin

tia ka lo inzawt ve ngiel kha.

Chuong ang thil chu tu hin ei ram dung le khangah mang ang chauh a lo inchang ta a, ramsa le vate mawi tak takin an mi trinsan zo ta a, an chanchin ei hril chang khom khel hrilin an mi ngai tum vàng váng lem tah. Sienkhom, fangfar puk en dinga ka fena, Shenandoah National Park lai ruok hin chu, sorkar humhalna hnuoiah, chuong ang thil ka hrilhai chu hmu ding a la tam a nih. Hi park hi km 805 biel vela lien a ni a, chu sunga km 322 biel vel chu ramsa humhalna ding lieu lieua an ruot a nih.

New Zealand-a 1983-85 sung kan um laiin puk chi hrang hrang ka fang tah a. Fangfar puk an neihai laia hmingthang tak, North Island-a um Waimato-a puk pakhata chun dumade (glowworms) chi khat, ‘arachnocampa’ an ti hin a puk lienna tak, inkum kuk el siling chu an kop sip vong a. Dumade hin var an ngai thei naw leiin thlalak hmang khoma a flashlight le lak an phal naw a. An hang sukthim vong a, chung tieng ei hang en chu, khaw inthieng, thla mang zana vana arasi tlep tuora ei hmu angin a’n lang a, hmu nuom a um a, siruk dam hmu tumin ei zong ruoi el a nih. South Island tienga puk pakhat ka sir ve thung ruok chu biek in puitling ruol ruola lien, a chung inkum kuk el tam tak a um a. Chu pindanhai chu tuiin a hor kuok ni loin, leithra (hlangva) chi khatin an fak kuok, leithra bubel vong a nih. Chu leithrahai chu eini laia leithra ang khom ni lo, phaivang lien chi ang deuh, lu inlok bur el an nih. A chung tieng chu an chil thli inhnaka an char vong a ni leiin cement-a nam taka zut phui anga chang le nam a nih. Ei hmu zinga chu leithra thilthaw ding chun awi a harsa hiel el.

Puk threnkhat ruok chu hnuoi sunga vadung um, sienkhom lirhningin hmun threnkhat a sawi chim leia vadung chu intana kang chat, puka hung inchang tah a nih. Khawvela puk tam lem hi chuong ang chi chu a nih.. Burma rama ka pûk hmuhai khom chuong ang chi, pûk thi (dead cave) vong a nih. Mizorama puk lien pawl tak, kan chihnam hming kan hung put tranna, Khawzawl bula khaw pakhat, Ngaizawl an ti khaw chunga Keivom Pûk khom hi chuong ang chi tho chu a nih. Khawvela pûk lien tak ni dinga ngai, Kentucky State (USA) a pûk, Mammoth Cave, tuta an hmu suok ta po zom khawma km 600 chuong hiela sei, an la fang phak naw khom sei tak la um dinga an ring khom hi, vadung hlui bok a nih.


Luray caverns

Hi pûk an hmu suokna hi kum 138 zet a lo ni tah. An hril dan chun, thirsu pakhat, Andrew Campbell khawnvar insit chu hnuoi kuoa inthoka thli hungin a mut hlum a. Chu hmuna chun pûk a um ngei ringin, a tupa kum sawmpathum mi le mi dang pathum a fiel a, khawnvar chawiin thli hung suokna kuo chu darkar li top an ver ta ngat ngat a. An ver pop hnung chun khawnvar chawiin hruiin an inkhai thlak a, hi pûk ropui hi August 13, 1878 khan an hmu suok tah a nih. Kum za chuong hiel sung hin kum tluonin zing dar 9 a inthoka zan tieng dar 6 chen mi en dingin an hong a, tu lai hnaia kum tina a ram mi le ram hrang hrang 70 neka tama inthoka hung sirtu chu nuoi nga neka tam an nih. Kum khat sunga a enna man sum an hmu po hi India chenga hisap chun, Delhi tlanga biek in hmun inchawkna le a biek in bawlna khop zet, crore li chuong vel a nih.

Hi lai ram neitupa Sam Buracker chun bat a hau leiin a rulna dingin court-in a ram hi lilam dingin thu a pek a. Hi pûk hi a um ti hrerutu Andrew Campbell le a koppui dang pahnihai chun inthuruolin pûk an hmu suoka inthoka thla khat hnunga chun an inchawk a. Hi pûk hi a um thu an puong phing leh, dawha hmanga a ram tlawmtea lo inchawtuhai chu Buracker chun a hêk a, kum hni an buoi hnungin Virginia Supreme Court-in a hmaa an lo inchawkna chu sûtin a neitu kuomah a pek kir a. Chu hnungah mi hrang hrang kutah a um hnungin, a tawpah 1905 khan Luray Caverns Corporation haiin an inchawk tah a nih.

Tuta tourist-hai hmu dinga a pûk sunga lampui an siemna po hi sipai khaw fanga fang chun darkar khat sunga fang suok thei a nih. Amiruokchu, hi taka inthoka hmu thei po khom hi chik taka bi ding ruok chun ni tam fe ngai a tih. Ei zuk lut a, sir tinah puk chung silinga inthokin fangfar, rong chi hrang hrang put, zawngtra kung ra tak ang el hin, an inkhai thla fek fuk el a. Fangfar threnkhat chu a chung tienga inthoka hung indawn thla pei le a hnuoi tienga hung indawn tung pei chu an inzom a, ban lien tak, nuom tawka cheimawi angin an ngir fuk el a. Empress Column an ti chu feet 35-a insang a na, raws par sendang rong a put a, puon nem man to chia nal taka inzem angin a’n lang a. Ban a thrienga ngir pahnih, Professors Henry le Bard tia an ko chu pakhat feet 25-a insang, pakhat dang chu feet 60-a insang a nih. A nuhnung lem insiemna ding hin kum sing tam a ngai a nih.

Trentuikhawthla ni awm taka inlang, a thren chu bawngnene rong ang chara vâr, a thren ruok chu thrihna eng sen sur anga inlang, hmun hrang hrangah hmu ding a um a. Hei en thuok chun fangfar ni loa a tak tak sawn pal a ol khop el. Chuonghai laia mawi tak chu Brands Cascade an ta, khuoihlu ang rong put, feet 40-a insanga hung inkhaw thla a na, a khang khom feet 30-a lien a nih. Tui hung inkhaw thlaa a khieng, de iei iei awm tak tak khom a um a. Hnaiteah ei en hlak chun saiha ang deuthawa chang, fangfar luong thla inkhal a ni bok si. Imperial Spring an ti chunga Giant Hall silinga fangfar hung kai thla, mit lawnga hmu thei ringot khom singli chuong a nih.

Pûk hung suok tawma thil mak deu el chu, lung chang em em ni si, sienkhom thlenga artui hmin lo deua zeu, a tuite-eng le a tuomtu duor la tle set el ei thur suok ang ang el hi a um a. Chuong ang thleng chu intawk rielin pahni a um a, sienkhom thleng pakhata artui anga um ve chu a tuite-eng sun thre tah ang hin a’n lang thung. Chu chu a hminga khom “Fried Eggs” an tih.

Fangfar Organ

Hi pûka ka hmu châk tak chu ‘The Great Stalacpipe Organ’ an ti chu a nih. Hi hi fangfar hmanga siem khawvela piano/organ um sun a ni el bakah khawvela musical instrument lien tak a nih. A siemtu chu Springfield, Virginia-a um Leland W.Sprinkle, electronic engineer le organ hmet thiem, Peacebody Conservatory of Music-a music inchuk tah a nih. An hril dan chun, kum 1954 khan a naupa Robert piengchamah hi pûk hi en ding hin an fe a. An invak lai chun a naupan fangfar a tauh fok a, fangfar inbu lawl lawl ri chu a lo hriet a. Chu phing leh, pipe organ an siem anga fangfar hrang hrang hmanga organ siem thei ni dingin ringna a nei a. Kum thum a buoipui hnungin, June 7, 1957 khan a organ siem chu vantlang hrietin a tlangzar tah a nih.

A thaw dan chu, pûk sung hmun remchang kil khatah fangfar lung chungah organ lien tak a rem a. Chu organ-a a hmetna keyboard tin chun ri indik tak an phu suok seng theina dingin, chuong ang ri chu phu suok thei ding fangfar chi hrang hrang chu a zong ngat ngat a. A thren chu a ri indik tak a suok theina dingin chemtein fangfar chu a met chin a. Chuong fangfar tin chu keyboard-a a hmetna key tin leh thirhruiin a thlung zom a. Thirhrui hmawra chun hang hmet phaa fangfar va vawtu ding a vuokna (solenoid fired strikers) a siem a, a vuokna hmawra chun rubber a’n buk a. Hang hmet pha leh a vuokna bawka rubber zum khan fangfar kha a va sut a, a va sut chara an inkhak ri khawk khan, electronic impulse a siem a, chu ri char chu organ ei hmet pha a hung suok el a nih.

Hi hi mawl taka ei zuk hril anga thil olsam a ni nawh. A puk sung hi ieng lai khomin temperechar 54 F a ni zing a, tuiril, fangfar siemtu chu hmun hrang hrangah a la far zing leiin a hu chuop a, fangfar tam tak chu insiem zing a ni leiin hun sawtnawteah a vuokna thir a’n bukhai chu a hung nghar-ek a, a ri indik a suok thei naw a. Chuleiin, an khattawka en fie le siem thrat a ngai zing a nih. Hi pûkin a huom sung po po hi acre 64 a lien a na, chu chu lo zau, pari 32 inlengna a nih. Organ le a zom fangfarhai hi acre 3.5, pari khat le a chanve sunga mi a hmang a na, sienkhom organ ri hi kil tina inthok khomin hriet phak a nih. Hi organ hi hmangin record an siem a, chu chu fangfar organ hmanga khawvela musical record siem hmasa tak a nih. An hla khumhai chu Side 1: Shenandoah, Gloria, The Old Rugged Cross le Beautiful Dreamer; Side 2: A Mighty Fortress Is Our God, Silent Night, Holy Night, America the Beautiful, Believe Me If All Those Endearing Young Charms le God Be With You Till We Meet Again a nih.


Erkondison in hmasa tak

Kum 1901 khan hi pûk neitu Company-a lu tak Colonel T.C.Northcott chun pûk chunga hin damna in, sanitorium a bawl a, chu chu a hmingah ‘Limair Sanatorium’ tiin a’n bùk a. Hi in truonga inthok hin inches nga biel vela lienin pûk chu a zuk ver tlang a, pûka boruok fim le dei chu in sunga chun a lak lut a, chu thli hung lut chu sem dartu dingin 42 inches a lien hmaizap (fan) a’n bùk a. Chu hmaizap chun minit li dan peiah boruok dei chu pindan tinah a mut lut leiin nipui vanglai tak khom in sung chu dei rongin a siem zing a nih. Boruok fim le dei, thilhrik (bacteria) le par hmul inleng (pollen) iengkhom pai lo a ni leiin awmna nei le thuoksamhai ta dinga damna in a nih. Hi in hi America rama khawl hmang si loa siem, erkondison in um hmasa tak a nih. Hi thing in hi kum sawt nawte hnungah a kang a, a hmuna bok pucca in an bawl thar a, chu chu tuhin a la um zing.

Thimna inthimzie

Kan suok hmain kan innghak khawm vong a, a mi thruoitu chun a sunga electrik var chu a hang hmet hlum a. A mi hril ang ngeiin, a hang inthimzie chu, hmai ei hupna kut takngiel khom ei hmu thei naw hrim hrim. Inthim ka tong china chu a la’n thim tak. Chu inthim let tlukledingawn tam taka inthima an hril, var a hip lut khom suok ta lo hrim hrim, van sang hmun tam taka uma an hril, Black Hole hang inthim dingzie dam a min ngaituortir hiel a nih. Peterin, zawlnei tehlemhai le zirtirtu indik lohai hremna dinga, “thima khom thim sa tak chu an umna dinga ruot a nih” (2 Pet 2:17)a ti dam kha a va’n thim awm char char de aw!

Ka hang ngaituo zui pei chun, ei ram le ei sawsaiti hi chuong ang thim saa leng zing ang chu ei nizie dam ka lungrilah a hung inlang a. Thim po po hnetu le hnot hmangtu Isu Krista ringtu le zuitu inti si a, ei varin inthim a ngam tlat naw el hi, ieng ang var tehlem am ei kol ning a ti maw? ti dam chu Luray Cavern kan suok tawma ka ngaituona rik taka hung deltu chu a nih.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR: Pu L.Keivom is a retired IFS officer and well known Hmar Mizo writer. This article is dated October 29, 2006 Camp: New York.

By L.Keivom* Inpui Columnist

‘Country roads, take me home, To the place, I belong..’

Frederick (Maryland) October 9, 2006 Thawtranni tuk. Zanah Lalhminglien le a ruolnu Eni leh keini nupa chu mi dang an zal hnung, dar 12-ah thrunghmun rem thraa perkhuong leh hla sak a, kan inpawl tran chauh leiin zing tieng chu zal pamchar thaw naw inla khom tho inhmat a harsa leiin dar sawmah ka tho trawk a. Sinthaw pawl chu khuontevika thoa, zing dar ruk, ni suok hma deua sin tran vong an ni leiin, ka hang tho chun khawsawt taka invel invel, ka tupa Paula chauh naw chu in hnuoi tieng chun tukhom hmu ding an um ta nawh. A thaw dan pangngaiin, Lalruotmawi hlasakna video chu thingpui a dawn hma le voksa hmepok a suong tran hmain, a hang thaw tran phot a, zal pumin, mang le mang naw inkarah, kan khuma inthok chun ka lo ngaithlak a.

Ni thum sung kha Lalruotmawi leh sir hrang hranga thu le hla ruoipui threpui a, kan va sukhlim bum kha a na, a ruolin kan suoksan ding a ni leiin, inkhawmpui trumtriek ang elin, a hmuna umhai ta ding chun pangngai aw el thei a ni naw khomin, inthiem an um khop el. Chuleiin, ka zing tho a mi hmu charin ka tupa Paula chun, “Pu Muong, voisun bek chu ka cham ro ie. Nangni in fe bok, Ruotmawi a fe ding bok, a ruola in mi hang maksan chu kan khuo a sawt taluo ding a nih. Lalmuongpui khom zuk fawn ka ta, zingah hung thruoi el cheu lem dingin zuk hril ka tih” tiin a mi thlo ngat ngat a. Cham la chak, ka ruolnu Dari khomin a trapa chu lo thlopin an mi ruolbom a. Inhmangaituo le inngai em em leia inthlo theia Pathienin a mi hang sie el dam hi a ropuiin a va hang hamthratthlak de aw! Amiruokchu, kan fe hmasak khoma Lalmuongpuihai sir ding kan ti kha kan hlen thei ta naw leiin le keini mi lo mikhuol dinga Frank W. Landymore khomin kar khat zet chawl a lak top a ni leiin, cham la nuom hle inlang khom cham thei kan ni ta si nawh.

Iemani chen hnungah a mi thruoia hung Lalmuongpuihai khom an hung tlung a. Frank chu khawbur, damsam mang lo a ni leiin an hung tlung chun in chung tieng khom hung kai tung loin pindan hnuoi tieng chun a zal hadam nghal a.. Keini Sura thlahai po chun mani trong inziet hloka hmangin, voksa hmepok, kel chek inthak thraka chartanga siem le fak ding chi hrang hrang an buotsaihai chu, inhnikti takin kan fak mel mel a. In dang, mel sawmthum laia hlaa tlung, Lalruotmawi khom kan hei hriet vong vong a, a awrizinal ngei hi hung fa phak sien kan ti hle a. Thil ching, ei inthranglienpui, einia kop nghet tlat laia pakhat, ei thlarau le inzom chu ei thil fak nuom zawng le du zawng a nih. Vai milien khuol an inzin changa hmun tina ruoi ropui tak tak buotsaipeka an ko lawnhaiin iemani chen hnunga an ngai tak le thaw an chak tak chu truongah dierkei leh inthrung biel a, mawl taka kut ngeia chutney sehmea dal le chapatti/bu ‘dal bat’ fak a nih. Ieng ang nga khomin rangkachak tuia cheng nekin duma cheng inhoi an ti lem dai.

Suok dinga kan hang inpei fel zet chun chawhnung dar hni a lo ni der ta a. Frederick, Maryland-a inthokin kan fena ding Fredericksburg, Virginia hi highway-a fe chun km 160 chuong, Churachandpur le Pherzawl inkar chen deuthawa hla a nih. Khaw thlir malama lamlien chin hraw ruok chun darkar hni chuong a lak. A ram mawizie le an khawsak dan thlir malamin khaw kar lam (country road) hrawin kan fe a. A ram leilung hi ama dumbel ang topa Frank chun a hriet bel, a tleirawl laia a suk a tunga a lo pal tlang tah a ni leiin, kan thil hmuhai chu a hmatiemin a mi hril pei a. Chuonga titi zing pum chun zan tieng dar 4:30 ah Lalmuongpuihai in, 5900 Danielle Drive, Fredericksburg, Virginia, VA 22407 chu kan tlung tah a nih. Fredericksburg hi mel 11 biel vela lien, mihriem 20,732 chauh umna a nih.

Kan tlung charin Frank chu bu khom fa loin a zal nghal a, a tukah har vukin a hung tho a. Keini ruok chu kan hang inhre fel hnungin lawna insawizoi kan mamaw bok a, an naupang tak Harry Khawmawi chu thruoiin, kan pathumin walking-in kan fe a. An umna veng hi veng inhoi le fienriel tak el, a khaw tlak tieng, lamlienpuia motor ri hriet phak naw tawk chara hlaa um a na, khaw thar a ni leiin a fai a, in tinin kompaun lien tawk tak nei seng dinga an rel a ni leiin an inthawl a, tuol tieng lam awnah kompaun lien tawk tak nei chit thei dingin lampuia inthoka hla reiah in an bawl seng a, Mani tuol senga hlobet chu sipai rongrut lu ang deuthawa namin khawlin an at ruol a, kompaun nei mawi tak le fai tak ni an tum seng leiin a veng phekin a mawi el a nih. In kawl fai lo le trul a um chun City Council-in an suknam a, a thaw man chu in neitu kuomah bill an thon el a nih. Eini laia mani kompaun seng ei inhuon khum bur ang hin kot hma tieng tukhom dai sak an um ve nawh. Vok le ar le ran dang hrim hrim, ui le mengte ti chauh naw chu, a vaina hmuna naw chu sie phal a ni naw leiin, huon dai siem a ngai naw a, an phal bok nawh. Eini ruok chu a letlinga khawsak ei tum a. Ke nei, invaka thil sukse theihai kha a huongah khum loin, ke nei lo, invak hmang thei lo, ei huon le lohai hi dai ei sakkhum lem tlat a nih! Ran leh tuol khat hluoa khawsak hi ei khel pha pha leh eini khomin an thaw ang hin ei la thaw ve dingah beisei inla. Ei invong fel dan le insukthienghlim dan level enin, tu hri hin chu thienghlimna khawpui hluo tlak chu ei la ni nawh.



Virginia hi USA-a State 56 zet laia pakhat, an khawpui Washington D.C le inramria um, mel 39594 biel vela lien, mihriem maktaduoi 7.5 umna a na, an khawpui chu Richmond a nih. A hming hi British Kumpinu thienglam, Queen Elizabeth I, ‘Queen Virgin’ tia hriet hming chawia an phuok a nih. A State changvon (motto) chu ‘Sic Semper Tyrannis’ (Thus Always to Tyrants) a na, chu chu ei trong chun, ‘Neksawrtuhai chu hnawl kumkhuo ding’ tia inlet ding ni awm tak a nih. An State hlapuia 1940-a an pom chu James Allen Bland phuok,

Carry me back to old Virginny

There’s where the cotton and the corn and tatoes grow,

There’s where the birds warble sweet in the springtime,

There’s where this old darkey’s heart am long’d to go

ti hi a nih. A hnungin thu mal threnkhat, entirnan ‘darkey’s’ ti hi dreamer’s ti le tatoes ti hi ‘potatoes’ ti lamtawia ziek a ni leiin a hmaa apostrophe siein ‘tatoes tiin an thleng a, voi tam tak House of Representatives le Senate-ah pom dinga an nor hnung le hnawl hnungin kum 1997 khan an siem thrat chu an pom ta trawk a, ‘Virginny’ ti khom ‘Virginia’ tiin ziek a ni tah. A version hlui chu ‘official song emeritius’ ti a na, a version thar chu ‘official state song’ ti a hung ni tah a nih.

Virginia State hming indik tak chu ‘Commonwealth of Virginia’ ti a na, USA States laia ‘Commonwealth’ hming put um sun ni mei a tih. Hi State-a inthok hin USA Presidents pariet- George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, James More, William Henry Harrison, John Tyler, Zachary Taylo le Woodrow Wilson- hai hi an pieng a, a hmasa tak pahni le a nuhnung tak hai lem hi chu khawvel hrieta hmingthang an nih.

Ka naupang laia Virginia hming ka hriet hmasakna tak ruok chu dum bur nal taka ‘Virginia tobacco’ ti inzieka inthok a nih. Hi dum hi kum 1612 khan English mi John Rolfe chun Virginia-a hin a ching tran a, kum sari sungin a ram tharsuok an thon suok rawn tak a hung ni a, kum zahni sung zet chu a ram sum hmuna hnarpui tak a nih. Dum chingnaa thok ding mihriem an dit rawn leiin Africa rama inthokin midum ruol salin an hang tol thlak treuh a ni kha. Tu ruok hin chu, ziel hawp hi hriselna ta dinga hmelma a ni thu le bansan dinga inzirtirna a nasat leiin Virginia sum hnar tak chu sa, bawngnene le thlai zor a ni ta a, duma inthoka an sum lak lut chu 5.7 per cent chauh a ni tah.

Take me home, country roads

October 10, 2006, Thawleni tuk chun a hmaa kan lo remruot lawk angin puk hmingthang, Luray Caverns an ti chu fang dingin zingbu fak khopin kan inthok suok a. Favang tawp tieng, thlasik hung intran dinga thing hna a hung eng tran hun a ni ta a. Blue Ridge Mountain-a motor-a inzin nuomhai fena dinga President Hoover hun laia mel 107-a sei Skyline Drive an siem chu hrawin tlang chu kan kai tung a. Ei nghatna tieng tieng a mawi a, en nghok a um naw a. Ei kai insang po leh thing hna rong chi hrang hranga inthlak chu hmu ding a tam tul tul a. Muol insang deuhai chu rong chi tina chei par huon angin an vul chuk el a. Tlang inhnuoina tieng chun thlasik hung mek kut chu an la tuor nasa naw leiin hring dupin an la’n lang thung a. Kum tluona hna hring zing thing ti naw po chu November thla bulah an hna trilin, saruokin an la ngir fuk ding a nih. Hi sik le sa inthlak, thing hna tril hun hi a nih Americaa ‘The Fall’ an ti chu nih. Edena Adam le Evi tlukna, ‘The Fall’ an ti leh ngai pol ding a ni nawh.

A tlang sip kan tlung hmain, khaw thlirna, tlaitlan inhoi tak el kan tlung a. Sak tieng ei ngha chun Virginia bu thleng, Piedmont phaizawl hring dup el, Atlantic Tuifinriet kam chena inzar duoi chu ei hmu a. Sim tieng chun Blue Ridge Mountain le inzom pei, tlang insang lem hring dum durhai chu inzaum takin an ngir khup a. Thlang tieng ei zuk thlir chun Blue Ridge le Appalachian Mountains inkara phairuom, Shenandoah Valley incham duoi el chu ei hmu bok a. Thlang tieng kawlrawna tlang inzam phei, Appalachian Mountains an ti ruok hi chu West Virginia State tienga um a ni tah. Hi tlang inzam phei hin Georgia State-a inthoka intranin, States pariet zet hraw tlangin, hmar sak kil deuthawa um Maine State chen a hang sun a, mel 2174 (km 3500) vela sei a nih. West Virginia hi a hma chun Virginia State-a um hlak a na, sienkhom kum 1863 khan intum an suok a, an State khawpui chu Charleston a nih.

Hi tlaitlana inthoka khuo kan thlir lai hin, ka hma zawna ka thil thlir le inzomin kum 1997-a fam lo chang tah John Denver hla sak, ‘Take me home, country roads’ ti kha ngaituonaah a hung inlang a, lungrilin a chang khatna le thunon chu ka sak a:

Almost heaven, West Virginia,

Blue Ridge Mountains, Shenandoah river;

Life is old there, older than the trees,

Younger than the mountains, blowing like a breeze.

Country roads, take me home

To the place, I be-long

West Virginia, mountain momma

Take me home, country roads.

Hi hla, 1971-a a hung puok dar lai dam kha ka ngaituonaah a hung inlang a, lung hlui a’n leng vong vong a. A thu chauha ka lo sak hlak, a tak ngeia ka hang hmu ve chun ka lungril namen loin a deng a. Hi hla 1971-a a hung suok khan thla ruk sung Number One Hit a ni char char a, chu sung chun a kawpi maktaduoi khat an zor suok a nih. A mak nawkna chu, Kawmiunis-hai indaidanna bang nor chimtu hla hmasa tak a nina chu a nih. Hi hla hi Communist China sorkar-in an ramah zalen taka Western music sut le ngaithlak a phal hmasa tak a ni tlat chu tie! Hi hla hin a saktu John Denver khom tu la hriet mang lo kha van zawlah a vor tung a, October 12, 1997-a a vuongna khal tui a bo leia a tlak hlum chen khan a hming a re ta nawh. John Denver hi a hming tak chu Henry John Deutschendorf Jr. a na, West Virginia pieng khom ni loin Roswell, New Mexico-a pieng a ni dai lem. Colorado khawpui, hi lekha ka ziek laia Sielmat pasalthra Rohminglien le an nu Vanrammawi le an nauhai tuol lengna Denver chu a ngainat em leiin hmingin a put top el a nih. Khawvel hmaah a chawimawiin a sukropui hle bok.

Ei hril tah laklaw leiin hi hla hung suok dan hi hang zep sa law law inla. John Denver le a thawpui Bill Denoff le Taffy Nivert hai chu Washington D.C a country club pakhat Cellar Door an tia chun zan khat chu hla an sak a. An trin chun an pathumin John Denver in tienga riek dingin an suok a, lampuiah eksiden an tuok a, Denver kutpui ru a tliek leiin Hospital-ah tuom dingin an thruoi a. In an tlung chun Bill le Taffy chun thla khat sung zet hla pakhat an buoipui tah thu chu John Denver an hril a. Maryland-a um Taffy sunghai hmu dinga an fe trum, khaw kar lampui kawi ngiei ngiei an hraw lai thu chu Bill chun hlain a phuok a. Chu hla chu a hnungin, West Virginia-a lem ziek thiem, Bill-a ruolpa, lekha a hung thon zata West Virginia tlang ram mawizie hung hril hlaktu thu le inmil dingin a her danglam a. A thluk chu a ler deu bakah a chang hninaa chun saruoka um an minuhai an hisapna, zamaw rong kai tieng hret a um leiin radio-a sak ding lem chun an pom an ring naw thu dam chu an hril sa bok a. Bill le Taffy chun an hla thar chu an hang sak a, John Denver lungril a tawk hle a, a trim sur sur a. Chu phing leh anni pathum chun zing dar ruk chen chu hla thu le thluk chu an siem thra ngat ngat a, ei hla hril lai hi a hung pieng ta nol el a nih. John Denver-in album siem nawk hmasa takah hi hla hi a khum nghal a, dang ruol loin khawvelah a puok dar tah a nih.

Chu chu mi chanchin ni sien la. Keima tieng panga ka beidongna ruk hang hril vak ka tih. Ei ram le ei nun mawi hlakzie thlir a, lungril le thlaraua,

Kan tlangram mawi, hring dum dur hi,

Lentu sawl thing tin an vul chiei;

Thlirin a mawi, salung a awi,

Zo thli fimin damten mi thawi

tia ka lo khek suokpui kha, ei ramah hmu ding um ta loin, ram dang mihaiin an lo rochung ta lem daih a nih ti ka hang hmu chang hin, inhnar a na taluo a, lungrilin ka trap inrum hlak a nih. Mi rama chu an thing le hlo hnahai chenin naute duotin an duot a, zalen tak le thlamuong takin an rampui, thel hun hnuoiah ramsa tinreng an tla diel diel a. Thing buk tinah tri ding nei loin vatehan muong takin ra an tlan a, nunkhuo an pham a. Hmun tina vadung luong hok hoka chun ai le nga le thilhring dang dangin tura an vai hlum ve tri der loin hlimin tuol an chai a. Mihriemin a mihriempui a muongpui a. Zalen taka nuom nuoma nawal ei inchawk ang ela silai le a mu inchawk thei a ni vei leh, chuong hriemhrei triumhai chu mihriem pelnaa hmang loin an zalenna humhalna ding le sapel an phal huna sa kapna dingin an hmang lem a nih. Eini ruok chu….

Chuong lai chun ei ramhuoihai hmel dam ka mitthlaah a hung inlang a. Ram hmangaia inhril, rama dawia ina huoi lem si, an hum ding tak hum neka mani unauhai hringna ienga khom ngai lohaiin ka ruol hlui Ngurdinglien hai, K.T.Lala hai, ka tu suong Lalrohlu hai le Isaac Lalmalsawm Intoate hai an that lai dam le chu leia Belzebub a’n nui kuk kuk lai dam ni awm chu ka mitthla a, iengkim hmutu Pathien hmaah inzakin hmai ka hup a. Ka bula motor khala thrung Frank, Pathien tri mi le inza em emtu chun hre pal a tih ti inlauin, ama tieng khom ka ngha ngam nawh. Hieng ang thil hi ei ngaituo pha chun hmun mawi tak khom hi a mawi thei naw a, inhnarna suktamtu an inchang lem hlak a nih. Chu zing sa khom chun ka ram chu ka ram a na, ka mihai chu ka mihai an ni tlat si. Ka hnawl thei naw a, ka zamsan thei bok nawh. Ka hnawl chun keima le keima inhnawl ning ka tih.


Fangfar puk hmingthang

Blue Ridge tlangpui sip chu chuong kai ta loin kan kir nawk a, chawlna hmun remchang pakhatah kan sunbu fun chu kan thret a. Chu zoah Shenandoah phairuom panna lampui chu manin, kan fena ding, fangfar puk hmingthang tieng chu kan pan thlak a, darkar chenve hnungah Luray Caverns chu kan tlung tah a nih.

*About the author: Pu L.Keivom is a retired Indian foreign diplomat and a noted Mizo writer. This article is dated October 24, 2006, New York.

Odd as you may think, the Delhi Municipal Council has deployed a group of langurs as part of the security team to keep ‘unwanted elements’ away from the Commonwealth Games venues.

Council officials on Monday said that the langurs' job, in this case, is to keep away other types of monkeys who are fond of creating menace wherever they go.


A langur guards the Commonwealth Games headquarters from the 'invasion' of other monkeys on September 27, 2010, in New Delhi. Courtesy: Reuters 

Activist Medha Patkar spoke to Sanjib Kr Baruah on what the dam network in Arunachal would mean.

It is said hydropower is renewable, non-polluting and environment-friendly. Why the opposition on just these grounds?
India generates 25 per cent of energy from hydro electricity, but it is not necessarily clean and cheap as claimed. It doesn’t make the air look black like in the case of thermal energy. But it pollutes the river, the environment, destroys prime agrarian land. There are displacements and loss of livelihood of the people living in these areas. Upstream and downstream impacts take place only after the projects become fait accompli. There are forests destroyed and a huge toll on land. The other issue is that there are no proper cost benefit analyses. And in the Northeast, there are questions on seismic vulnerability also.
India has about 5, 000 large dams and till date, not a single large dam has been checked even once by the Planning Commission. Moreover the promised benefits never seem to be reaching the tail end of the community spectrum.

You have come back from a visit to some of the dam sites in the Northeast. How do you read the ground level situation?
In the proposed projects, there are no viable stakes for the affected people. On top of that, there has been no consultation with local communities. Community consent is very important and crucial. This is not being done in the Northeast. Only the riparian state governments have been consulted, but what about the people? It is a classic case of the industrial economy benefiting at the cost of the agrarian economy.

Moreover, how much of power does the Northeast need? A maximum of 6,000 MW. So the rest — out of the total planned 63,328 MW — will be transported to mainland India. How much power will you exploit from one particular region and at what cost? This is exploitative and amounts to internal colonisation. Local populations always should have the first right to resources. You cannot compel them to bear the cost.
And now a very powerful grassroots movement is building which has activists, peasants, lawyers, students, scientists, in a single fold that is raising pertinent questions. Not much space has been given in the national media on this as the Northeast is on the political periphery.

So how do you reconcile with the country’s developmental needs?
The issue is not power but energy. All other modes need to be explored. It is time for really renewable sources like solar, tidal waves, biomass or even micro dams. For instance, gobar gas has the potential of generating 20,000 MW in India. How have we tried to exploit it? On the other hand, USA has not built a single large dam since 1994 because of a moratorium.

Our environment impact assessment mechanism is also making fundamental procedural mistakes. Are we taking transmission and distribution losses into account, as the power in the Northeast will be brought to the mainland? There should be a thoroughly comprehensive cost-benefit study.

It has been pointed that a dam network in the Northeast is of strategic importance vis a vis China?
How can that be? China is upstream for most of our rivers. On the contrary, we should be raising issues over China’s plan to build dams across the Brahmaputra as river basins have far reaching national and international linkages.

If these 168 dams do take off, what do you visualise in the future?
In the Northeast, the downstream impact will be immense. Already the region is disturbed with insurgencies, illegal immigration, etc. The dam network will add a host of problems to the already existing ones. Rivers will die out, the fragile environment will be in ruins, natural resources-based communities will be destroyed, many livelihoods will disappear. There will be no end to it all really.

Courtesy: Hindustan Times

d_tipaimukh1 RENGKAI: A National Seminar titled “Dialogue on Dams and Development: The Case of Tipaimukh Hydro-electric Multi-Purpose Project” would be held on from December 13-15 at Churachandpur, and from 16-18, December, 2010 at Tipaimukh, Churachandpur, Manipur, according to organizing officials.

Several experts from diverse fields - social workers, environmentalists, journalists, politics and cultural organisations - have already confirmed their participation in the proposed North Eastern Council-sponsored seminar.

Below is the concept of the Seminar released by the organising committee.


One cannot deny the fact that dams accelerate socio-economic growth and mitigate the miseries of a large population of the world suffering from the vagaries of floods and droughts. Dams also contribute significantly in meeting some of the basic human needs like water for drinking and industrial use, irrigation, flood control, hydropower generation, inland navigation and recreation. In one of its key messages, the World Commission on Dams conveys that “dams have made an important and significant contribution to human development and the benefits derived from them have been considerable.” At the same time, it may also be pointed out that an unaccountable price has also been paid to secure those benefits especially in social and environment terms by people displaced, by communities downstream, by tax payers and by the natural environment. The question is the proper balancing of the heavy cost or loss in terms of land and environment and the direct as well as indirect benefits of dams.

Therefore one of the most controversial issues has been on the impacts of large dams. Advocates of large dams have contended that such large structures are essential to meet the increasing water demands of the world, and that their overall societal benefits far outweigh the costs. On the other hand, critics have argued that social and environmental costs far exceed their benefits, and that the era of construction of large dams is over. Citing the US-Japanese experiences where more than 100 dam projects were scrapped, the idea of constructing big dams is being discarded, they argued. As a matter of fact, USA and Japan are the two countries which have the highest number of large dams. USA alone has built more than 6375 dams and Japan more than 2475 large dams. Recently China has come out with a very ambitious plan of constructing Three Gorges Dams on the Yangtse river which is believed to displace more than a million people, apart from causing an unimaginable environmental hazards. It appears that the China’s State Environmental Protection Agency will not be able to withstand the political and market forces behind the proposed massive project. This has further intensified the controversy over the impact of big dams. In the absence of objective, authoritative and comprehensive evaluation on the problem, there is still no consensus on the overall benefits of large dams. When such reliable objective assessments are not available, controversy over the impact of dams has naturally continued.

What is therefore urgently needed is the updating of existing knowledge on the impacts of large dams through reliable collection of social, economic, environmental and technical data from different projects. In the absence of observed facts and figures and scientific analysis on the contributions of existing large dams, dogmatic and emotional debates between the proponents and the opponents are likely to be counterproductive. In this connection, the Conference Report: International Workshop on impacts of Large Dam, Istanbul, Turkey, 25-27, October, 2004 has emphatically suggested thus, “the future discussions should be based on what are the specific water needs of a region in question, and how can these societal needs be met within a reasonable timeframe, in a cost-effective, socially acceptable and environmentally friendly way. Such a logical approach will invariably conclude that large dams are necessary for some regions, and equally in other places alternatives like rainwater harvesting or small dams may be appropriate. These are not necessarily “either-or” issues. When constructions of large dams are warranted, all direct and indirect benefits and costs should be considered in technical, economic, social and environmental terms. Analysis should be carried out on the nature of the beneficiaries, which is at the heart of any decision-making process in all democratic societies. The people who are likely to pay the cost must be explicitly made beneficiaries of the project”.

It is within this given perspective that we have to approach any proposed dams or hydro-electric projects in the country. In North East India alone, there are more than 20 hydro-electric projects. The most controversial one is the Tipaimukh multi-purpose dam which envisages construction of a 390 m. long, 162.8 m high earthen core rock-filled dam. This will be one of the biggest dams ever planned in India. Briefly stated, there is a mixed reaction among the directly affected local people against the proposed high dam: anti-dam group mostly represented by NGOs and student bodies, pro-dam group comprising cross section of society and neutral groups comprising mainly intellectuals. The project of such magnitude is bound to make tremendous impacts. What is urgently needed is to pinpoint and identify the specific positive and negative impacts of the dam and what can be done to maximize the positive impacts and to minimize the negative impacts. Let us deliberate on these points without being carried away by sentiments and passions.

The outcome and recommendation of the proposed seminar will, it is hoped, be an eye-opener for other on-going projects in North East India too because the issues which have been spelt out here have global, national and regional dimensions.

Specific Issues to be focused on:

The two days’seminar/workshop at Churachandpur, and two days interactive workshop with the local people at Tipaimukh will focus, among others, on the following issues:

1. Tipaimukh: Past, present and future .

2. Land use pattern among the Hmars of South Manipur. Past and Present.

3. Towards the protection of Indigenous land rights.

4. Environmental issues as reflected in Hmar-Mizo folk tales.

5. Socio-economic issues of Tipaimukh dam.

6. Environment and Ecological Issues: Global perspective.

7. Indigenous Knowledge System, Identity, Freedom and Tipaimukh Dam

8. Displacement and rehabilitation: Global experiences of resettlement.

9. Towards the scientific management of forest along the Barak river.

10. Tipaimukh dam: Development or disaster?.

11. Hydroelectric projects in Manipur with special reference to Tipaimukh Dam.

12. Financing dams: Role of World Bank.

13. Lesson from the Loktak Hydro-Electric Project.

14. Towards updating of existing knowledge on the impacts of large dams.

15. Tipaimukh Dam: An emerging issue in Indo-Bangladesh relationship.

By Lalthangsang Intoate, HNA Leader

Tipaimukh dam-thumb [iPhone] Mihriem ta ding hin electrict mei-eng / kawlphetha hi a pawimaw ang hrimin, khawvel
rambung sawrkar tinhai chun, an ram sunga electrict mei-eng lak suok theina hmun hrim hrimhai chu hla reng tum lovin kawlfai kel tumin \hang an lak mup mup seng a. Chuongang bawkin ei chengna ram India sawrkar thlungpui ngei khawm chun, kan ram ei lo ti ve sunhai ram kilkhawr tak tak a hai chun, electrict mei-eng lak suokna ding DAM chu hmun nga (5) lai hielah siem ve tumin hma a lak mek a. Chuleichun, ei hnam sunga mithiem mivar tamtak hai lungril a sahal a, an bei a dawng takzet bawk a, an ngaidan hai khawm mipui mimirin tamtak ei hriet ta bawk a nih.

Tipaimukh Dam hin Hmar hnam boral theina le damkhawsuok theina thil inthup a phur hrim a, chu thil chu ngaituona pawnlang tak neia hrietsuok el thei chi an naw a nih. Chuleiin, Tipaimukh Dam hi a hming, ‘DAM’ ani ang hrimin, Hmar hnam damkhawsuok theina ding thil hung phurluttu ani theina ding chun, nang le kei hin mawphurna insang tak ei nei a nih.

Ngaituona pawnlang lo tak pakhat, Genesis & Science ti lekhabu a chun, “Ei chengna khawvel hi Pathienin a siem khan mihriem vaibelsie sangnga cheng theina dinga a siem a na, sienkhawm, mihriem chu vaibelsie sangnga tling phak thei ngai nawng ei ta, ei phak insangtak ah vaibelsie sang hni za nga ei tling thei chau ding a nih. Chuleiin nau sukthlak le insiem (family planning) thaw hi Pathien lawm zawng ani naw ding a nih” ti thu hi an ziek a. Tuhin, khawvela mihriem popo hi vaibelsie (crore) zakuo vel tling phak awr chau ding ei nih. Chuong chu ani lai zing, ei chengna khawvel hi ei thlir chun, Delhi hi hieng anga a fe pei chun, kum 30/40 hnungah chu fly-over in a sip el dim chu maw?.. China khawpui tak hlak chu traffic jam-in ni riet hlawl a aw an ti bawk. Hmar politician-hai chau ni lovin, khawvel rambung tina politician-hai tak tak khawm hin ngaituona inriltak neia, Pathien thiltum le a lungril puthmang hrea mani ram chau ni lova khawvel pum huop politics hi an khel a tul ta a nih.

Tipaimukh Dam hi khawvela Dam insang tak ding ti kha a nia, sienkhawm an sukhnuoi nawk met ding nia hriet a nih. Tha / power pek suok thei zawng a khawm, Asia khawmuolpuia a lien tienga pathumna ni dinga ti a nih. Tipaimukh Dam chau ni loin Tuivai Dam, Tuiriel Dam, Bairabi Dam le Serlui Dam hai hi Hmar hnam delna rama innghat ani nawk ta pei a. Hmar hnam hi Pathienin iengang ngirhmun’am sie a tum ninga ta? tia ngaituona hei pek meu chun, ei mithiem mivarhai lungkhamna hi belchieng a dawl hle a nih.

Hmarhai hi \obula chienglo hnam ei ni ang hrimin, politics-a ei inhnuoi zie hi hrilin a phak naw a nih. South East Asia biela cheng, hnam \obula chieng lo, Tibeto-Burman or Sinlung suokhai lai hin a bikin, Zohnathlak hieng Chin, Kuki, Mizo, Zomi, Hmar intihai hi politics ah ei inhnuoi bik hle a. Chulai chun, ei ni Hmar intihai hi ei lan hnuoi bik nawk zuol a nih. Sienkhawm, hnam changkang tak tak khawma an thawhla em em hlak, DAM ropui tak, Asia ram pumpui a khawm a lien pawl tak Tipaimukh Dam le, Dam van tlang tak tak pali lai zetin a mi hei tuom vel el ding chu mihriem ngaituona ringawt a chun, “Boralna’n a mi hmuok zing a nih” ti naw ruol an naw a nih.

“Sawrkar thlungpui hin Tipaimukh Dam hi a bawl tak tak ding ani si chun, a ram hi a sie vawng ding a na; a thlengna dingin ram mi pe rawse” ti inla hlak, mi \henkhatin an tinzawn tak, Khawbawn tlang hlak chu Hmar ram tho a ni bawk si a. “India khawpui hmun pakhatah mi sie ro” ti ding ni inla hlak, hnam inhumhimna pek ei ni naw chun, hnam boral or refugee hnam ei ni bawk ding si. Chuleiin, India danpui, India Constitutiona tribal / hnamhnuoihnung inziekluthai hrim hrim chu, inhumhimna pek an ni ngei ding a nih, tia dan siema um chu, eini Hmar hnam khawm hin kiltina inthawka inkhi khawmin ei phu ve zing lai, ei politics infuk chie naw leia vawisunni chena ei la dawng lo chu hmu / dawngna remchang nia ngaiin, tuhin, “NO SAFEGUARD NO DAM, HUMHIMNA BO-IN DAM BAWL PAWM LO” ti thu chu Hmar hnam SLOGAN / KHEKPUI dinga thlang suok alo ni ta a nih.

Tipaimukh District Demand le inzawma tawngkam \henkhat:
* Hmar Inpui-in Tipaimukh Dam Committee an dinna san tak chu, Tipaimukh biel suksiet vawng ani ding chungchanga hin pumpel theina lampui zawngtu dinga indin ani a; sienkhawm mumal takin an hmalakna chu a fe thei nawh a: tuhin hieng ang thil hi a hung suok ta si chun, hi neka thil\ha hi aum thei chuong ding an naw leiin a puitling ngeina dingin theitawp suotlang a \ul a nih. Ti em a chu Pherzawl ADC ringawt khawm hi ani dan ding ang takin fe sien, chu ringawt khawm chu hnam ngirsuokna tham a tling ding a nih. District puitling, 6th Schedule
safeguard nawk lek lem chu hmu thei inla duthusam a nih. Pu Lal\halien, Secretary, Hmar Inpui, Hqrts.

*Keiin thu / lekha-in do theina popo-in ka do a, chu taka ka lungril beiseina lien tak chu, “Hnam sipai/revolutionary party-a inthawk hin Tipaimukh biel boral nawna ding hi ieng thil tak him thawhai sien pumpel thei ninga ta?” ti hi a nih a. Tuhin hieng ang thil a hung pieng hi ka lawm takzet a, hi thil hi a puitling ngei theina dingin theitawp ei suo a \ul a nih.
Tv. David Buhril, Chairman, SIPHRO.

* Tipaimukh Dam hi ei dang theiruol ding an nawha; boralna ding laka pumpel theina chu ei mamaw takzet a, chu ding chun Safeguard chu duthusam a nih.
Pu John H Pulamte, President, HSA. Hqrts.

*Hieng chen chen hi in phak taa, in topui \awk \awk a ni? Theitawp ei suo tlang ding a nih.
Pu HT Sangliana, Vice-Chairman, National Commission For Minorities.

* Hnam humhimna nei lo chun changkangna lampui hraw chu harsa tak a nih. “NO SAFEGUARD NO DAM WE DEMAND AUTONOMOUS DISTRICT UNDER SIXTH SCHEDULE AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC SECURITY FOR PEOPLE AFFECTED BY TIPAIMUKH DAM’ ti hi Mizo sap \awng amanih, Hmar sap \awng amani khawm nilo, tuipuiral \awng indik tak a hawi khawp el, a thil tum khawm hin kawngro deng sien a hawi hle hi tie..
Pu L Keivom, Zoram Khawvel lekhabu ziektu.

* Hmar hnam hin ei thil ngen hi awlsam takin ei hmu naw khawma, Constitutional Advocate ruoiin Supreme Court ah sawrkar thlungpui hi hek theina ding san tha tak ei nei a nih. Asanchu, India danpuiin Tribe pakhata ami pawm ei ni angin humhimna/safeguard khawm ami pek ngei ding a nih. Chuchu, India danpuibu, India Constitution bupuia chuong a nih. Chu khingna ding chun sum tamtak seng ngai sienkhawm, Hmar hnam hin chu khingna tham sum chu ei nei a nih.
-Pu Daineikung Pudaite.

Tipaimukh biel MLA ni mek, Pu Ngursanglur le MLA ni tuma kam pet mek, Pu Chaltonlien le Pu Lallukhum-hai pathum hin iem an hril vea? ti chu la tlangzar naw phawt ei tih.

zawlbuk By Lhunkholal Lupho, Guest Writer

In view of the fact that most of us are not aware of our true genealogical background, and for our local elders who depend on the memory bank of community elders, here is a brief account of the Hangmi pedigree.

The Lupho(Ngoilu), Lupheng(Lhanghal), Misao (Leivon & Neitham) and its related clans belong to the Chin-Kuki-Mizo ethnic group; theyshare common root, linguistic and cultural affinity with them. The other version revolves within the faith of emergence of their forefathers through a cave, according to which they are known as Khulmi (Khul=cave, mi=man). But they could not recount reminiscences about the exact location of the legendary cave. Yet they identify themselves as having a distinct genealogical line from the party who crossed from the sub-terranian region to the outer world above. They belong to Hangmi pedigree (Hangmi-Kuki Life and Lore. P-234, T.S. Goswami-1985), who was born to Vumchom, grandson of Chonkim. Hangmi, or to put it the otherway way, Lupho had a close genelogical tree with Sailo of Mizoram. (Misao Inkon. Pu Shinghil.Pa Minluto. P-6).

Origin: The Lupho(Ngoilu), Lupheng(Lhanghal), Misao(Leivon & Neitham) and related clans believe that they came through khul, which otherwise is recorded as chinlung khul or sinlung khul. According to their traditional folk history, their proginator, Hangmi, once lived in a sub-terranian world, and decided to come over to Chungkho. They came across a great snake called Gul-Lheopi that blocked their way. So he along with his band of party, including Chongthu, Zahong and others, prepared an armour consisting of a long cotton shawl called Phoipi and headgear with sharp edge and killed the serpant and crossed over to the chungkho-gam.

Since he was a fearless warrior, he was called Hangmi pa.

Settlement: The villages of settlement in random order are Yangngoupoh, Maphou, Changoubung, Tonglhang, Misao-Lhahvom, Thangkanphai, N. Zilphai, Nungka, Govajang, Lungphou, Molkon, Kangpokpi, Nongdam kuki, Molvom in Nagaland, Patlen, Phaijang, Phailen, Siloijang. Simol, Maolhang, Phailengjang, Leithao, M.Kholmol, khomunnom, Vengnom, Twikham, khaosat, N.Champhai and Molhoi. They also settle in North Cachar Hills and Karbi Anglong in Assam state.

Social Structure: There are many sub-clans among Lupho(Ngoilu), Lupheng(Lhanghal), Misao(Leivon & Neitham) clans and senority is identifed by paying ‘sating’ (meat piece in the back vertebra) to the elder.

Marriage: Like the other Chin-Kuki-Mizo clans, marriage is done within matrilinear cross-cousin i.e. a boy has to marry his mother’s brother’s daughter. This type of marriage is arranged by parents of the boy and the girl. There is often a man who takes a woman as wife due to the premarital pregnancy. Such a marriage is called marriage practiced locally called Kijammang (elopement).

Jolgai. There is also another type of Bride Price: A bride price is one lutom(a fine cloth for the father), one laisui (a traditional cloth for her mother) and eight mithuns, one dah (gong) and khichong (necklace). Fixation of price is done by council of Tu le Be of three members each from the bride and groom side by cutting the feast animal liver equivalent to bride price. Equivalent bride price paid on the day is adjusted with the pieces and the left over is understood to be paid later(credit) by the groom’s party. Dahpi (gong) and khichang (necklace) are announced verbally. This system was rigidly followed in olden days, but is now hardly followed as the bride price is settled by the bride and the groom parents along with the house council. Whether the marriage be of arranged or elopement, usually when the bride price has to be announced, the bride’s parents and the household council hold feast and announce the bride’s price. And the groom’s party is not allowed to hold feast for the announcement.

Birth And Naming Ceremony: When a child birth is announced and brought to the maternal grandparents, the maternal grandparents kill a cock for a male child or a hen for a girl child and present feather and dried ginger to the child for a healthy life. And naming of the first born is done after the maternal grandparents. And naming ceremony is held when naojuneh(serving of rice-beer) is performed. Traditionally, the ceremony is held at the Upa (clan head) house or village.

Death and Burial Ceremony: In olden days, the dead body is cleanse with warm water. After a clean bath, it should be tight with ‘sutkhom’ (main pillar of the house) or sanglai (frame made of bamboo). The dead is buried in the courtyard. With the Christianization of the Hangmi pedigree, they now bury the dead body in common burial place(cemetery). They described death into two types -

Thise and Thipha (bad death and good death).

Thise is unnatural death, and this type of death is buried outside the village.

Thipha is natural death, and the dead body is buried inside the courtyard or in the village cemetery.

Economic Activity: Jhum or shifting cultivation is the main agricultural occupation. Rice is the staple food and supplemented by cash crops such as cucumber, pumkin, bean and other jhuming products.

Trade and commerce: They trade mainly with other Chin-Kuki-Mizo clans, Meitei of Manipur valley and also with Burmese of Myanmar. Their main trading items include chillies, pumkin, cucumber, dried fish, meat etc. They also trade in mithun, gong and buffalo.

Village Political organisation: Village administration is done by village chief, whose position is strictly hereditary and enjoy complete and absolute ownership of the village, land and property. The chief is assisted by a village council members, nominated by the village chief himself.

A hierarcy of the village chief council members or government are:

Haosa or Chief,

Semang Pachong or Mantri(nominated council members),

Lhangsam(Informer), Villagers,

The present day villages in Manipur are governed as per the village Authority Act, 1956. The chiefs still hold powers and privileges as the entire village land still belongs to him. He acts as ex-officio-chairman of the village authority. The secretary and other members of village authority are now elected by the members of the village.


Some selected folklores;


Legend had it that Lhangeineng was the most beautiful and charming lady. The daughter of Lupho, during the great flood (as mentioned in oral tradition) that submerged all land, saved the people. As the flood was rising high, the water echoed the name pho ..pho . . . . .pho….so major families sacrificed their daughters. Mention can be made of Guite and Lienthang families, etc. in fear and later search for what it was and later came to be known that the gods of the sea had been calling upon Lhangeineng. They realised that the gods of sea were calling for a sacrifice of Lupho’s daughter. So all went in search of her and found her hidden by her parents.

Legend had it that her beauty enchanted everything around her . … so on fervent request and prayer of all to save them, Lhangaineng gave herself up to the gods of the sea. After the sacrifice of Lhangeineng, the flood receded. After the flood was over, Lupho and his wife went out in search of their beloved daughter. It was said that the place where Lupho and his mistress’ tears fell became salt-spring and chillies, and Lhangeineng turned into fish. It was said that they all met. It was also said that Hangmi pedigree (more precisely Lupho clan) were forbidden to eat salt, chilly and fish.


Legend also had it that the Hangmi pedigree during their settlement in Phubala at Thangjing hill and adjoining areas of the present day Moirang subdivision of Manipur (India), they were greatly blessed by the Thangjing diety. The deity blessed them with brave and mighty sons and beautiful daughters who were prosperous and strong. Their historic dominance in Thangjing hill was an eye sore to the neighbour, the Moirang people in particular, who were curious of the source of blessing. The Moirang people envied them and waged war against the Hangmi people without warning. During the course of repeated invasions, which lasted several days, the Hangmis were eventually suppressed and their deity was snatched away from them. Like the Luphos, after worshipping the deity, the Moirang people were blessed with beautifulmaidens and many young brave boys.

Mention can be made of the legendary beauty of Thoibi until today. In the olden days, the people of Phubala (literally means revenge) and the people of Moirang communicated with a single dialect. Their customs and culture were also the same. The other Chin-Kuki-Mizo people in Moirang at the time are the Chothes. King Chothe Thangvai Pakhangba was also known as Thangvai Pakhangba or Ivang Purik Lai Thingri Nachousa. He ruled Moirang from BC 90 – toAD 30, as recorded in the pre-history of Moirang. According to folklore, they and the Chothes were at constant rivalry. The Chothes were assimilated to the Moirang people, partly prompted by the strenuous relations with them. (Zalengam-the kuki Nation. By P.S. Haokip).

Present state:

The Hangmi pedigree or as recorded as Milhiem – since he cut the serpent (Gul-lheopi or Gulhiemnu) into three pieces, he was nick-named/ given the title. Milhiems (Mi=Man, Lhiem=cut into pieces) at present day scatter across the states of Manipur, Assam, Nagaland and Mizoram. They are believed to be mostly concentrated in Manipur (northeast India) and Saigaing division of Myanmar. Due to their weak political, economic and dispersed geographic settlements, many got assimilated and absorbed in other kindred tribes and sub-groups namely; Kom, Maring, Lamkang, Paite, Vaiphei, Khongsai, Hmar etc. of which some of these groups make it a basis to claim them their own because of the presence of the assimilated members, the claim which has been rejected by Hangmi elders and intellectuals.

The future of Hangmi people solely depend on the younger generation who will stand the test of time and evolution. The Hangmis constitute a significant part of the larger Chin-Kuki-Mizo community.

*About the author: The writer is a student at Thiagarajar College of Engineering, Madurai, Tamil Nadu (India). Source: Mizoram Express

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