Halloween party ideas 2015

By Lalramchhani*

MIZO_TRIBES_BOTTLES_INPUI This question seems a bit awkward or even may be considered something which should never be asked. But, in the last ten years of my association with various Mizo tribes both inside and outside Mizoram, I've seen people using the term 'Mizo' in their own context. I also found that each Mizo dialects played a great role in shaping the tribes' outlook towards socio-economic and political life.

The most important factor that identifies the unity and bond of the Mizo tribes lies in respecting each other's dialects. For a Mizo speaking Duhlian, he has to make sure that others around him do not feel threatened. For a Mizo speaking Hmar, he has to see that others are comfortable using or conversing in other dialects. But, how can we reach this level of understanding each others is a big question now.
We must ask ourselves these ten questions as a Mizo:-

  1. Do I consider myself a Mizo just because I was born in Mizoram?
  2. Am I a non-Mizo if I'm a speaker of Hmar, Paite, Kuki, Gangte, Lai, etc?
  3. Should all Mizo tribes speak in the same language?
  4. Am I a Mizo just because I speak in Duhlian dialect?
  5. Do I have the guts to say I'm a Mizo?
  6. Am I courageous enough to accept non-Duhlian speakers as Mizos?
  7. What do I have in common with people speaking in different Mizo dialects?
  8. What should I say if someone tells me to speak in 'Mizo trawng'?
  9. Are Mizos in Mizoram 'real Mizos' and others 'second class Mizos'?
  10. Am I adaptable and ready to accept the truth that there are many Mizo tribes, not just one Lushai/Lusei tribe?
I hope these questions will help us in clearly understanding the issues that are hampering the process of Mizo unity. I called it "a process" as Mizo tribes' unity is still at its infancy. We will be ready to build a strong Mizo/Zomi/Zo nation only if we have positive answers to these questions. God help us!
*Lalramchhani is a social activist.

Proper education is one of the foundation stones education_loan_consolidationfor the success of any individual, and must never be abandoned for any reason whatsoever. By availing an education loan, you can get financial assistance during the pursuit of your studies in the following areas:
  • Any kind of fees payable to the educational institution like tuition fees, examination fees, lab fees, etc.
  • Hostel security, caution money or any kind of institutional fund
  • Purchase of laptops or any other electronic equipment essential to the course.
  • Purchase of books and uniforms
  • Travel expenses (in case of studies overseas)
  • Miscellaneous expenses like project work, amount for completion of theses, etc.
While funding one's studies is obviously the main purpose of taking an education loan, there are also many benefits associated with the taxes you would have to pay. Following is a slight brief of the same :
  • The section under which one can claim deductions from taxable income is 80 E. To be specific, the deduction is only for the interest paid, and not on the principal amount.
  • One would get tax benefit only if the loan is in his/her name and is taken for the purpose of pursuing higher education for self, spouse or children.
  • Only full-time courses would be considered for tax exemption. Neither part time courses nor correspondence ones can be exempt under the same.
  • One can claim deductions for as many loans he has taken for educational purposes. For instance, if you have taken a loan for self as well as your spouse, you can claim noth deductions from your income, provided it is you who is paying both the EMIs.
  • These deductions are only available for a period of eight years starting from the financial year when you start paying the installments.
The total fee for the entire course is usually given by the bank directly to the concerned college, educational institution. The process goes like this, once you have submitted the application for a loan, the bank would verify the estimated expense for the entire course and compare it with the amount you have applied for. It might also be a possibility that the bank may reduce the loan amount on the basis of various grounds. Banks also might charge a remittance fee for payment to education institutions abroad which are in dollars. In case you are unemployed and can't start on your EMIs immediately, your repayment would start approximately six months to one year after your course has been completed, or when you get a job, whichever is earlier, and the interest would be compounded quarterly and added to the principal. Although this option carries a high interest rate, it's beneficial for students who are going abroad or those who are financing their studies by themselves.
Further, education loans also don't attract the pre-payment penalty.
In case you have opted for a floating interest rate loan, you are not allowed to switch over to the fixed rate one. However, you can change your borrower, i.e., the bank from where you have taken the loan, in case you get a better deal, with some part of the loan amount paid by you to the bank which would not be deducted from the amount you have to pay. Many times, people resort to personal loans for educational purposes also, since they want more than the loan amount that has been sanctioned by the bank due to numerous reasons. However, this can prove to be very harmful in the long run, as the interest rate for a personal loan is always higher than an education loan. The repayment requirements are also not as convenient as in case of an education loan. Hence, one must take an education loan for all expenses related to studies. However, in case one does have expenses more than the prescribed loan amount, he should take a personal loan only for the excess amount, and not the entire expense.
Eligibilty :
  • Aplicant should be an Indian national
  • Applicant should have one parent earning a regular source of income
  • Age : 16-26 years
  • Studies in India : upto Rs. 10 Lacs
  • Studies abroad : upto Rs. 20 Lacs
Documentation :
  1. 1. "PNB Sarvottam Shiksha Scheme" - The documents should be got executed by student (the applicant) and the parent /guardian (the Co-applicant).
  1. 2. PROOF OF AGE
  1. 3. PROOF OF IDENTITY(Applicant and Co-applicant)
  • Letter from present College/institution
  • Photo PAN Card
  • Driving Licence
  • Passpory
  • Voter's Card
  1. 4. PROOF OF AGE (Applicant and Co-applicant)
  • Birth certificate
  • School leaving certificate
  • PAN Card
  1. 5. PROOF OF ADDRESS (Applicant and Co-applicant)
  • Ration Card
  • Utility bills
  • Rental agreement
  • Passport
  • Insurance payment receipt
  • Voter's Card
  1. 6. PROOF OF INCOME (Self Employed)
  • Salary Slips
  • Bank Statement
  • Form 16
  • Income Tax Returns
  • Certified Balance Sheet and Profit & Loss Account etc. with Details of Assets & Liabilities of parents or guardian
  1. 7. SECURITY/GURANTOR'S DOCUMENTS (for Loan more than 4Lacs)
  • Particulars of Guarantors and details of their Assets & Liabilities, wherever applicable; If immovable property offered as Collateral Security - copy of Title Deed, Valuation Certificate and Non-encumbrance Certificate from approved Lawyer of the Bank
  • Proof of having secured pass marks in last qualifying examination
  • Letter of admission in professional
  • Technical or vocational courses
  • Prospectus of the course wherein charges like Admission Fee, Examination Fee, Hostel Charges etc. are mentioned
  • Photocopy of Passport & Visa, in case of study abroad
  • Any other document/information, depending upon the case and purpose of the loan.
Courtesy and for further information chekout: http://www.paisawaisa.com or http://www.apnaloan.com

By Lalremlien Neitham*

Nupa hril lo, thalai thisen lum lai, tha inza zok zokhai ta ding chun mingo hai style “Living Together” a um ve chu nuom a um ve hle ring a um. Tlangval ta ding lem chun tlaisuong a awl nghal a, puonsawp a awl bok a (hieng hai pahni hi nunghak/ nuhmei hai mawphurna bik a nih ka ti leia ka hung ziek ani chuong kher nawh), hang kuo lum tawt tawt ding a hang um nawk nghal, Red Cow hlak tlasam lo ding. Karei! karei! Anhawi hmel lawm lawm! Ei hang ngaituo ringot khomin zer a far tum el a!

Ka vangduoi ka ti di'm, ka vangnei ka ti di'm, ka room 8 feet by 8 feet te hi, AC hril lo, Cooler umlo na hmun, Fan hlak van tong vanga hang inkhai, an vir dan hlak chu nunghak hai le ei hang inpel phat a, an perfume rim inhnik ei hnarin a lo intem hman liet ang cho. Nunghak hai thawveng deu a hung umna chi an naw ning a tih, a lum bok, a ap bar el a nih.

A ieng iengkhom chu nisien, kei chun ka phak tawkah khawvel rinum hang tuor hi inhoi ka ti a, insuksekna le khawvel hrietthiem pha na'n ka hmang lem a, ka khat khomin inhoi ka ti em em. Mani khat a um hi anhawi ma ma chu a nih. Ei thawveng bok, mi mit meng veng ding hlak um bek bek lo, ei nuom chen chen ei meng a, ei nuom chen chen ei zal a, ei nuom chen chen sin ei thaw a, ei nuom chen chen khawlai ei leng a, tho inhmat a ngai leh, alarm clock (mobile phone le inkop) ei set a, fak le dawn hlak ei inruol, indemtuona le mit sir a inmelna hlak um lo. A kar chang harsat chang khom um sienkhom, huihah! heihah! ri a tlawm bawk. Khawvel hi ka roksai, tia faifuk hleu hleu puma hla sak heu heu chang a tam nuom hle!

Ei hnam khom a hung changkang pei a, khawpui a hai tam tawk tak ei um fur tawl tah a. TV, Movie le ei khawvel tong thar mek haia inthoka ei lak sawng pei le ei hringnun hung inthlak danglam peiin LIVING TOGETHER a um dam ei um nuol taa. Kongkhatah ei changkang deu deu tah, ti inkhinaa lo hmang nuom hai ta ding chun lo hmang thei ning a tih. Hienglai zing hin, a mimal khomin ei mimal thiemna le nina, ei zalenna hai chu ei hung hriet deu deu a, lawm a um khop el. Ka mimal le ei khawvel inhlum letdan tukver a inthoka kalo thlirdan chun LIVING TOGETHER chu a pawi ka ti bek bek chuong nawh. An hringnun kalchawi dan chu a living-together hai mawphurnaa innghat ani tlat si a. An hringnun va rel khum pek tumna hi an fuk rak nawna a umin ka hriet lem.

Chuonglaizing chun, zawna mania indon dinga ka dit chu – ei society (a pum huopin) hi LIVING TOGETHER pom thei dingin a um ta'm? ti hi a nih. Delhi le khawpui dang a hai chun lo OK nisienkhawm, veng nei ei ni seng leiin, veng tienga mihai chen khom ngaituo a hung ngaiin ka hriet tak meu. Ei khuo le veng tienga mi hai ta ding chun (a bikin ei nu le pa hai) thil rapthlak tak tling a tih. Veng tienga ei thalai hai chu an fel bik ei tina ani nawk der nawh. 'Morality' inkhina hmol um sien, khawpui a mi hai nek hman hmanin an tla hnuoi ring khom a um hiel. Inthak khom an inthak ol a, kum tlinglo a innei khom an tam a, XPerience khom an nei tam lem rawi mawh! Pu Dr. FT Hminga thuvar “Thingtum anga” um chut chu ani kher di'm chu leh! Proof ei nei sinaw leiin ei hriet ta nawh.

A ieng iengkhom ni nawk sien, 'morality' tha le thanaw inkhina chu 'society' thil lo thlirdan hi ani deu tak hlak. “Living Together” khom ei umna society le khawvel inmil a, ei cheng ngai mei a tih.

*Dated: New Delhi, Fri, 20 May, 2005

By Robert L Sungte

If Rosa Parks had not been angry, forget about Barack Obama becoming the 44th President of the United States of America.

Many people might have told you 'Bawia, Baiwnu, you get angry too quickly! Why don't you just calm down a bit?' If you come across such people again tell them this: 'Well, I need to get angry Anger Management_Studentsnow in order to be a successful person later in life." The aim is to turn your anger into a weapon and use that weapon to get what you have always dreamt of.

This may be of an extreme take on anger. But as a student to get what you wanted, anger in its various form is a necessity. As a student and a human being we are prone to get angry, but the questions few ever asked is: 'Why not turn my anger into a motivating force to reach my goal?'

Many people associate the word 'anger' in a negative sense. A student needs to realise that 'anger' has its positive side as well, especially when it comes towards achieving their academic goals. In fact, it can do miracles if it is controlled in a sensible way.

In our society many are ashamed to say 'I'm angry with my life' or 'I'm angry with this kind of life.' The only consolation is that few have the courage to say 'Ka thang a tlawm ngei (I'm really annoyed / upset)'. That's a big relief! It keeps the hope alive that future generations of the Hmar tribe will continue to can get their daily bread.

Looking back, we can see successful people who had turned their anger into a weapon. Most of them belonged to the first generations of the Hmars educated. They were angry with their love life, economic conditions, social outcast, etc. It might sound ridiculous but rumour has it that even the noted Hmar writer and former Indian Foreign Service officer Pu Lalthlamuong Keivom was angry about his personal life besides other 'humiliations' before he wholeheartedly put his heart and mind into his studies for the pursuit of his dreams.

However when asked, Pu Keivom humbly told me, "It was not anger. I would call it 'thangtlawm' (passing annoyance). Anger of any kind is not beneficial." Even though the word "thangtlawm" is not equivalent to anger, the two are synonymous.

Reacting to Pu Keivom's statement, another successful Hmar government official based in New Delhi who does not wish to be identified said, "Anger is a part of our success story... I'm not ashamed of saying 'I was angry' before other tribes. But I avoid saying it within our community as our social setup hardly accepts a man who is angry."

A friend of mine in Bangalore, a very active social worker, said, "Two years ago, my locality was a mess and I was angry. Something had to be done, so with a few neighbors and a little monetary help from one IT company we have turned the neighborhood into one of the cleanest in Bangalore. You can make a difference — turn your rage into action."

Anger, You & Me

Let's now tackle the word 'anger' from a layman's point of view. I believe as a student and human being we all know what it means. We all felt it: as annoyance, frustrations, irritation or as a fury.

What we need to know here is that anger is normal and usually healthy human conduct expressed in different ways. The sad thing is, when it gets out of control it can lead to crisis — at schools, colleges, work place, in your personal life, studies and so forth. It is also natural to express anger aggressively. On the other side it inspires and in some cases becomes a means to allow us to fight and to defend ourselves.

A very good example of how anger of a person changed the history of the United States of America is Rosa Parks (1913-2005). On December 1, 1955 in Montgomery, Rosa was angry at the bus conductor who told her to give up her seat to for a white passenger. The case was taken up by Martin Luther King later who harnessed that anger during the Civil Rights Movement and the rest is history. If Rosa had not been angry about the injustice of the time the world can forget about Barack Obama becoming the president of the United States.

A certain amount of anger, therefore, is indispensable to our survival! However, we can't physically beat up everyone who annoys us. Social norms, laws and common sense must prevail over our anger.

Three Common Ways to Deal with Anger

1. Let it out: We can express our anger in a forceful way without being aggressive. Being assertive doesn't mean flexing our muscles only. It also means mental determination to work out a solution and thereby arriving at a sound resolution that will turn anger into our advantage.

2. Let it stay: We also suppressed anger and then redirect to strike useful targets. We can hold our temper by thinking positive things.

3. Being calm: Finally, we can extinguish anger from within. One can do it by controlling the heart beat through meditation like deep breathing.

Anger & Me

Many of my friends who have known me for years and with whom I have shared much joys and less of my sorrows often got the impression that I was one of the cool headed guys. But the truth is otherwise, I get angry and often quickly but I always appeared calm and relaxed. That's my secret revealed now. Following are the three means I employed when annoyed or angry at certain things that crossed my path.

The first technique: 'Silence' prevents me from using the four letter-word and other slangs. It prevents aggravating the situation from going out of hand. In short I keep my mouth shut when an emotion mounts into anger.

The second technique: 'Can do better…' I adopted this when I was (ahem) courting my wife. As a youth many of us had encountered anger or disappointment in the path of boyfriends and girlfriends. If you are involved in a relationship that's too hot to handle or going out of your hands, say these words "I can do better...in studies, even if I'm not good for her/him". Repeat these words five times if not a hundred times with your eyes closed and you'll be surprise to see your anger flying away as you open your eyes towards a brand new life ahead.

The third technique: The final one which I still used today is changing my outlook. I believe this is the most difficult thing to do especially for students who are young and often impulsive. I found it was only when I was ready to accept the changes around me that I could arrived at conclusions that are meaningful, realistic and most of all productive for me. Changing outlook can turn the very cause of one's anger into fun and humour.

For a student, the underlying aspect of learning to cope with anger is to see less of your feelings during unpleasant events which are aplenty. However,anger is a serious business so it needs your full attention. No matter how hard you try to avoid, it will always be there in your life under different degree of definitions. For a student who wants to achieve certain goals you need turn that anger into a tonic to cure your frustrations, pains, losses and the unpredictable actions of others. You simply cannot flush out anger from your life until death, but you can certainly change the way it affects you.

*Dateline: 2009, Bangalore.

virthli.com launched March 25, 2011 zan khan Pu R.Th.Varte, Shillong in www.virthli.com chu a nuom taphawt tiem thei dingin a hawng (launch). Hun iemani chen liem ta a inthawk khan www.virthli.co.cc ti kha hmang a ni a.
Employment news, admission le education le inzawma thil pawimaw tak tak hai hrietna taka hmang hlak a nih. Tuhin a site hi puitling lema siemin www.virthli.com ti a suk changkangin a um tah.
Article, news le a dang dang hai belsa a ni ta bawk. North East a ding lem chun employment news peksuok rawn le kim pawl tak a nih. Columnist hai khawm ei hnam sunga lekhaziek thiem inlar tak tak iemanizat an ni bawk. Article, news item le thu dang dang hai khawm awlsam taka insuo thei zing a ni bawk.

Hmar_Population According to 2001 census, there are 42,933 in 35 villages in the southern region of Manipur, at Tipaimukh and Churachandpur. They speak Hmar language and converse well in Meiteilon. They also have populations in Cachar, North Cachar and Aizwal district of Mizoram. 

They are one of the highly educated Christian communities of Manipur tribes. They enjoy zu, home brewed rice bear, but Christianity has restricted it and replaced with tea in rituals. Earlier Hmars worshiped spirits, the mountains, the rocks and rivers. The first Christian missionary to the Souther Manipur, Watkin Roberts of Wales arrived in 1910 in a Hmar village at Senvon.

The Hmars trace their origin to Sinlung, the location of which is hotly debated. The Hmars are generally medium statured (5- 5.6 Ft), sturdy, dark haired, brown skinned, and known for their bravery. The Hmars still treasure and garner their traditional arts, including folk dance, folk songs, handi crafts, etc., representing scenes of adventure, battle, love, victory, and other experiences throughout history. Hmars have high literacy rate (79.8% as per 2001 census).

*Last update: 6.03AM, April 7, 2011

By Pu L. Keivom*, Inpui Columnist

L Keivom_robert_l_sungte_pics Thlasik hun a liam mêk a. Kristmas leh kum thar lawmna khuang ri pawh rilru beng atrangin a liam a, hârmei rim pawh hnim phak a ni tawh lo. Thrâl rim a rawn nam tran a, bialnute'n thaw luma min thawk khum leh kut luma min zût ang maiin, min thawk khum dan leh hmeh dan pawh a ni telin a danglam sawt hle. Kan pi leh pute hunah kha chuan chapchar hi hun nawm lai bera an sawi, hlim taka an kût tlut tlut hun leh thu leh hla thar tam tak lo tlâk hun a ni. Hemi hun hi hringnunah pawh tuai tharna hun a ni tih hre rengin, English hla phuah thiam P.B. Shelley-a pawhin a duhsam, ngaihdan thringte thil tharin a rawn thlak hun ni turin a Tlumte thlir a,

O Wind,

If Winter comes, can Spring be far behind?

tiin a lo auh lawm lawm a nih kha!

Kan khawsakna Delhi tlangah pawh hemi hun tluka nuam hi a awm lo. Hawina lam apiangah thlir ninawm lo pangpar chi hrang hrang vul chûk mai hmuh tur a awm a. “Min en teh, ka mawizia hi. Khuanu'n mawi a tih ang taka min duan ka nih hi. Rei lo tê he khawvel hi cheimawi tur leh min Siamtu themthiamzia leh ropuizia puang tura lo kal ka ni. Keimahah hian Siamtu hmêl i hmu em?” tia pangpar tinin min hui ni awm hian kan hmu a. Mit a tlai a, rilru a tihlim a, ngaihtuahna a fah a, dam man a awm hliah hliah a ni. Hemi hunah hian alawm India rama kan pangpar huan chhuan ber Mughal Garden, President kompaun-a awm chu mi tu pawh tlawh theih tura an hawn thrin ni.

Zoramah chawlh hahdam paha chumi thrâl hun nawm lai ber chu chhim leh turin March 8, 2011 khan Delhi atrangin Aizawlah ka thlawk chho a. Ka chuanna tur, zu lal Vijay Malya ta, Kingfisher thlawhna kha Terminal 3 atranga thlawk chhuak tur a ni a. He T-3 hi tun hnaia an hawn thar, zau tak, mawi tak leh ropui tak, khawvela airport terminal thra ber zinga mi a ni a. Chhuahna Kawtpui (Boarding Gate) an tàr zawng chu 64 a ni a. Gate tin-ah thlawhna kawngkaa invuah chi, leilawn fân (tube) a awm a, chu chu thlawhna kawngkaah an vuah a, chuta trang chuan thlawhna chhungah kan lut mai a ni. Ka chuanna tur thlawhna chu Gate 58 atranga chhuak tur a ni a, thui tak kea kal a ngaih bakah chhuk chho hmun hnihah a awm a. Hah hnêpa kan kal hnuin, kailawnah chhoh ngai tawh loin, thlawhna chhungah kan lut mai a ni. La kal ngai lo leh kawng kawhna chhiar thiam lo tan chuan buai leh bo fêna tham a ni.

Zing 6:30-a thlawk chhuak kha, dar 10:30-ah Lengpui ka thleng hman dêr a. Mipui zi nuai nuai hmuh tur awm tawh loin, Zoram khawvela kan êrpawt lian ber leh chhuan ber chu a ngai tèin, hnu chhawn ram ang maiin, a lo reh thriap a; diuti mi tlem tê leh Arrival Lounge leh thlawhna innghahna inkara pangpar mawi tak tak te chu hmuh tur awm chhun a ni mai. Pawnah chhuah hnu erawh chuan, hawina lam apiangah fartruah (erythrina stricta) pâr sen leh vaube (bauhinia variegata) pâr vâr an vul chûk a, Zoram tlang tluanah an lal vanglai a ni. Fartruah emaw vaube emaw hi favang laia pâr thrin chi pawh a awm bawk a, truah favang leh vau favang an ti.

Vaube ni si lo, vaube pâr aia sîn zawk leh a hnah pawh inang lo, neem (nîm) thing nia an sawi, mah se vai ram neem nen an kauzâr pianhmang inang lo, a hnah leh a khâk dan erawh inang si, zun thlum vei tana damdawi thra nia an sawi, a pâr vâr chi hmuh tur a tam hle bawk a. A hming ka zawhin tu mahin a Zo hming an hre lo. C. Lalbiaknema lehkhabu siam ‘Zoram Mawitu’ (p.113) a ‘Nîmpata’ a tih kha a ni mai thei. Zo thing, a ram chhuak ni lo, ram pawn atranga an lak luh a ni ngei ang. A thra duh hle a, zawi zawiin, kan hriat loh hlànin, a ram thingte pawh a chimral hun a lo la thleng lo ang tih tu nge sawi lawk ngam ang? A hnu lawka ka tawnhriat hian a sawi fiah hlein ka hria. Kal zel ila.

Chhangban Vs. Puri

Mizoram ka luh veleha ka tih duh leh tum hmasak ber thrin chu kawnglawng phuta siam ngei Mizo chhang, chhangban kan tih bawk, ei a ni. Chu chu ka tih chuan Zoram thleng tak tak ta-ah ka inngai thrin. Mi rawn hmuaktu, pa ropui L.H. Thanga rawn tirh Zâma nen erpawt bula hotel leh restaurant awm zawng zawng a hmatiamin kan zawt a, mahse pakhat mahin an nei lo tlat! Kan kal chho zel a, kawngpui bula awm thingpui leh chaw dawr inhawng kan hmuh apiang, nîngzu luanna Rangvamual pelh rakin, kan zawt zel a, mahse kan Mizo chhang kha Vai ‘puri’-in a lo luah lan vek tawh si! Ngaihtuah a tisei khawp mai. Kan hriat loh hlànin, chimralin kan awm mek zêl zawng a nih hi! Korean film zùna uai emaw, Kasauti ât chilhtute pawh hian kan dinhmun inhre chiang ngat ila chuan, chawp leh chilha kan sim nghal ka ring.

Aizawl la zin ve lote hriat atan, he Rangvamual kan sawi hi Lengpui/Sairang kawng, Aizawl thlen hmaa khaw pakhat, Kana khuaa Isua thiltih mak rinawm taka an chhunzawm zelna hmun lâr a ni. A khaw hming putu leh a chhunga chengte eizawnna hi a intu lo hle. Mizoramah chuan rangva hi rangva a lo ni vek ngawt lo. In leh rui thei pawh a lo ni! He khua hi Zofate'n lemderna tlang kan chuan sân tawhzia leh lemchan hi zah nachang kan hriat tawh lohzia hmaichhana min hrilhtu leh kawktu a ni. Hemi hmun hi khapna dan siamtu kan pawlitisiante leh an sangawi zawnpuiten an tlan pelh chânga an hlawhchhamzia inngaihtuah a, zah nachang hria a, insiam thrat zai an rèl hma chuan kan Zoram-ah hian khawfing a chat ngai lo ang. Hmasawnna ram pana ke kan chheh dawn tak tak chuan duhthusam ram hi kalsan a, tak ram hmachhawn ngam a ngai. Khap thila kan pawlisi leh Pathian Eden pawlisi kan sawi fo mai hi a intu lo.

Rimawi Rûnah

Chhun pachang, Sardarjiho ‘bara baje’ ah Aizawl Ramhlun North-a ka innghahna tur ‘Rimawi Cabin’ chu ka thleng a. Zoram khawvelah ‘Zalen Cabin’ pakhat chiah a awm angin, he ‘Rimawi Cabin’ pawh hi Zoram khawvela rimawi cabin awm chhun a ni mai thei. Zalen Cabin chu a awmna tur hliah hliah hming pu, Aizawl ‘Republic Veng’ atranga mihrâng R. Vanlawma'n (1915-2006) Zofate tana a hmathlir leh duhsam, zalen tak leh huaisen taka a pau chhuahpuina, râp in tlawm leh ropui, hmuhsitawm leh zahawm a ni. Chumi chanchin chu Zoram Khawvel-3 (p.113-119) ah chipchiar zawkin ka ziak tawh a.

‘Rimawi Cabin’ erawh hi chu pate lian leh huaisen, sumdawng thiam (L.H. Thanga Enterprise neitu), Zopa rilru dik tak pu mi, kawm nuam, thrian leh hnam chhana thih ngam lu pu, sakhaw mi ni lo, mahse Pathian trih mi tak, rimawi ngaina mi, Aizawl tlanga Music Studio hmasa ber (Jeetei Recording Studio, 1979) trantu, Zoram Khawvel-3 a a chanchin tlêm ka ziah tawh (p.92-93) Lianhmingthanga'n (L.H. Thanga) a in châr lama rimawi nena inkawm paha chawlh hahdamna (sanatorium) pindan fâl a siam chu a ni. Mafaa chuan hmu se, î-hê loin, ‘Chawlhna Tuikam’ a tih duh ngei ka ring. ‘Rimawi Tlaitlàn’ emaw ‘Rimawi Paradis’ emaw pawh ti ila, a sual lo ang. Ringtuten thih hnua chatuana kan tih tur nia kan rin leh tih hlân kan nghahhlel êm êm chu tawptai awm loa rimawi rem a ni a. Chumi tehna funga teh chuan, ka thlenna pindan hi hmun thianghlim, van ram tla fual a ni.

December 2008 khan hemi Rimawi Cabin dintu lung dawtah hian harsatna a awm avangin Aizawl tlang atranga Zingvawnzawla pêm turin hawilo par a thliak hman threlh a. Kolkata-ah an thlawk thla thuai a, BM Birla Heart Research Centre-ah an zai a, lung dawt thar an vuahsak a, Hringlang tlang chuana lunglohtui in hman lo chiahin an hnûk kir leh ta a ni. Daktor-in hna hram thawk tawh lo tur leh nuam tak leh hahdam taka hringnun khalh dêm dêm tawh tura an chawh avangin, Manipur chhim thlang biala gospel a luhna zabili (centenary), kum 2010 khan he Rimawi Cabin hi a din chhuak ta a ni. Harsatna hi mi huaisenin an tawh hunah thil thar thra zawk an hrin chhuahtir zêl zawng a lo ni.

He Rimawi Cabin hi in chung chhawrdawh, chhungkaw awmna thama zaua rimawi bûkthlâm fal nalha an sak a ni a. Chhuah lamah zawl zau tawk tak, pangpar khawina tur leh puan phona hmun, thlasik huna ni lum aina tura duhthusam a awm a. Ni a chhuah chiahin nui hiauin nizung mawi chuan mi rawn chibai nghal a. Chhak lam han hawi ila, tlang hrang hrang mu khup maite chu a rawn chhun a, hlim hmel puin an tho sung sung a. A khat tawkin threnawm ârte'n lawmna hla, an kumkhaw Halelujah Chorus chu, an lo rem bawk a. Zing thli fim thaw heuh heuh chuan bialnute trâng vûm mawia min nêl ang hian mi rawn thawi a, nuam ti lutuka trim ur urin kan mur suau suau a. A nì, hetiang hun hi alawm, lungsi taka van leh khawvel a infawh hun chu ni. Kum 1973-a Hmar trawnga ka lehlin, tun thlenga ka la khawih leh hman loh, kum 1913-a Rabindranath Tagore-an Nobel prize a dawnna Gitanjali–a tlar hmasa ber, “Thou hast made me endless, such is thy pleasure. This frail vessel thou emptiest again and again, and fillest it ever with fresh life” tih thu hian hriat loh ram ata mi rawn dêng dawt mai! Chumi khawvela inpawlna chu a chhimtute tan lo chuan hriat thiam mai rual a ni lo. Chumi ram hlimthla chu Rimawi Cabin tukverh atrang hian a lang asin.

Rimawi Cabin-ah hian duh hun huna pindan tihvawhna airconditioner thra tak leh kawlphetha mumal loh chânga chatlak loa hman tur UPS vuah a ni a. Tlâk lamah khum pakhat, a chhuat laiah thingrem-dawhkan lian tak, a sir tuaka hawn theih, rikawt hrang hrang dahna, a awm a, chu chu chhim leh hmar lamah sofa nalh takin a karcheh a. Chhuah lamah almaira leh dawhkan inkawpa siam a awm a, chumi chungah chuan TV, record player leh amplifier chi hrang hrang, hman lai, tun hnai leh tun laia an hman chi leh loudspeaker (ríkä) chi hrang hrang a awm a. Kan naupan laia an hman thrin gramophone, thingremzaithei, ri lo chhuahna dawt pawh tawtawrawt lu anga parh arh, a rikawt phêk tihvirna thirvial (spring) herh ngai chi pawh a awm bawk a. Saptrawnga hla rikawt chi hrang hrang, abîkin 1950-1990 inkâra hla lâr zual, analogue records leh digital records hla sing hnih chuang a awm a. Ka LP (Long-Playing, 33 1/3rpm records) pêk tawh ringawtah pawh hla 1000 chuang daih a awm. Western music zir duh tan chuan he Cabin hi miuziam chhenfakawm leh miuzik ngaihthlak paha chawlh hahdam duhte tan paradis leh tlaitlàn nuam a ni.

Analogue recording leh digital recording sawi takah chuan a awmzia kan hriat theih nan a tawi thei ang berin hrilh fiah tum ila. Aw ri, chhuah leh theih tura lak dan leh khung dan hi chi hnih a awm a. Pakhat chu analogue recording a ni a, a dang chu digital recording an ti. Analogue hi chi hnih a awm a. Pakhat chu shellac emaw vinyl emaw hmanga siam, a phek kual, hriau hmanga ri lo chhuak a ni. Hei hi kum 1940-1950 bawr lai khan a lâr hle. A dang chu magnetic tape, Germanho hmuh chhuah a ni a, 1950-1980 lai khan a lar hle a, chu chu Keset (Cassette Tape) kan tih, Kawl trawnga ‘khui’ an tih hi a ni. Chu chu zawi zawiin Compact Disc (CD) in a rawn thlak a. CD hi Digital Recording an tih tak chu a ni. Hei pawh hi engemaw hnuah a aia thra zawk leh hman awlsam zawkin a rawn thlak zel dawn a ni. Tunah chuan internet hmangin boruak laibrari-ah thu le hlate hi duh hun huna lak chhuah mai theih tura dah a ni tawh asin!

Rimawi Cabin-a Sap hla rikawt awmte hi Vinyl Records (Analogue) leh CD (Digital) vek a ni. Hemi bakah hian VCD tam tak a awm bawk. Mahni in bula sihneh kung awm, duh hun huna lak chawp mai theih ang deuh hian a ngai a ni ngei ang, Rimawi Cabin lumtu hian a library-ah Mizo hla a dah ve tlat lo! Mizo hla, abîkin sakhaw lam hla, ngaithla duhte chuan a intèknu Khûmte-i (Zothankhûmi) tlawn thrat mai tur a ni. Ani hi nu fel, fing leh zaidam, ni tin nuna kristian a nihna ziarang phur chhuak mi, an pa-in ‘Kan KTP nu’ a tih ngam ngat, chhiarkawp leh accounting thiam, an sumdawnna lama buaina a awm apianga an account ching feltu a ni a. An fapa Lallawmkima Zote (a pa-in a pan laia hming lema Sukrama tia a koh thrin) pawh 2011 January Session-a Rashtriya Indian Military College (RIMC), Dehradun-a lehkha zir thei tura thlan chhuah ngat leh tuna zir mêk a ni.

RIMC sawi takah chuan tlêm han sawi belh ila. Hemi campus hi acre 138-a zau, sipai ofisar lian ni tura mi thiam fâla ngaih an buatsaih lawkna hmun a ni. March 13, 1922 khan Prince of Wales-in a rawn hawng a. India zalen hnua Chiefs of Army Staff pali (4) leh Chief of Air Staff pakhat te chu hemi college chhuak hi an ni. Zirlai 250 leng a ni a, teacher-student ratio pawh zirtirtu pakhatin zirlai 12.5 zel a enkawl a ni. Kum tin thla ruk dan, January leh July ah zirlai 25 zel an la a, State lian 6 (UP, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal leh Maharashtra) te'n seat 2 threuh, State dang zawngin seat 1 chauh an chang thei. Class VIII atrangin an la tran a, an lâk hun (01 Jan & 01 July) ah kum 13 aia upa an ni tur a ni lo. Kum nga chhung sorkarin hnianghnâr takin ei leh in leh thiamna lamah a thlawnin an chawm tawp a, mi nihlawh chungchuang an ni. Pawl-12 an zir zawh hunah an tuina lamah threuh an kaltir a, mahse kum nga an zir chhungin an rilru an hmin hneh avangin sipaiah mi tam ber chu an lut chawk. Hemi luhna tur hian a tira State tana chan an ruatsak bâk eng konseson (concession) dang mah a awm lo. Chumi chan luah phâk tura Rimawi Run-in fa a hrin chhuah mai hi Zoram khawvel, ‘Rimawi Ram’ ta'n malsawmna ropui tak, ri mawi hlimawm leh chhuanawm, hnehna hlado a ni.

( *Pu Keivom is a retired Indian foreign diplomat and author of ‘Zoram Khawvel’ series. March 25, 2011, Delhi)

Good news for Hmar netizens! A new website Ruonglevaisuo.com hosted on Wordpress platform has been launched. According to the people working hard to bring out this new site, Ruonglevaisuo.com is a place where you can "share your thoughts, views and knowledge". Inpui.com and its readers wish Ruonglevaisuo.com a very long life!

The screenshot of the new website is given below:- ruonglevaisuo.com

To visit Ruonglevaisuo Click Here

Hmar_Mizo_Union_movement The Hmar Mizo community in the present state of Manipur and Mizoram were one of the strongest supporters of the Mizo Union movement during 1946-1951. People in Hmar Hills (present Sinlung Hills Area in Mizoram and Tipaimukh Sub Division of Manipur) even rejected a Hmar Regional Council offered by Manipur premier PB Singh so that they can be a part of the greater Mizo dream for a separate homeland.

However, despite their active participation, the Hmars were divided and separated by Tuiruong and Tuivai rivers from their Hmar and other Mizo brethrens after the peace accord. This movie looks at the historical background of the Hmars struggle for identity. It is Produced by Parbung val upa Pu Lalhmunsang Khobung. Here's a promo video:-

Video courtesy: Virthli

End_of_the_World Religious pundits have predicted the end of the world many times and they have been proven 'wrong' on all occasions. But this have not deterred Protestant preachers like Harold Camping of California and his team of RadioFamily.com to set May 21, 2011, as the Judgment Day. Though the day is over a month away, people across the world are discussing it in view of last week's disaster that hit Japan.

Watch all the videos and air your views.

ANOTHER PROPHET? Harold Camping, the man behind the date.




Ngaituona Hmang_thingking By L.Keivom* Inpui Columnist

Na chun hrieng in ta,

A ngaina hre naw ti niu,

Mit chun hmung in ta,

A umzie man naw ti niu.

-Isai 6:9

Times of India (June 14, 2005) a Mukul Sharma ziek ‘Need To Rethink Thought’ ka tiem chun kum tam tak ka lo ngaituo ve ta hlak thu chu nasa nawk zuolin a mi’n ngaituotir a, a mi sukhar huoi bok a. Ka thil ngaituo chu mi dang khomin nasa taka buoipuiin an lo sui ve a nih ti zuk hrietna chun a mi suklawm bok a nih. Chu thu chu a thupuia ka sie, ‘Ngaituona Hmang’ ti hi a na, Saptrong chun ‘Human Consciousness’ ti hi a laktawi thei dan tak ni mei a tih. ‘Nachang hrietna’ amanih, ‘Hmangchang hrietna’ amanih khom ti thei a ni bok.

Pathienin mihriem thluoka thilthawtheina a sie zaa sawmkhat vel chauh hi mi naran chun ei hmang phak ni dingin mi thiemhai chun an sui a. Scientist ropui Albert Einstein (1879-1955) ruok khan chu 15% vel chu a hmang phak el rawi mawh an ti chauh a nih. Kum li sung velin mihriem thluok hi a puitlinga ngai a na, chu chu a hmang rawnin an sor nasa a, a hmang tlawmin an sor tlawm el a nih. Computer thluok ang a na, computer pangngai char khom hi a hmang thiem le hmang thiem loin an sor trangkai dan chu inthlau tak a nih. Ieng anga hmangruo thra le thilthawthei khom a hmang nawtu le a hmang dan thiem lo ta ding chun ieng tina khom a ni nawh.

Ka thil ngaituo rop chu eini rawi thluok hmang dan le hmang naw dan a nih. Thluok hmang ei ti chu ngaituona hmanga thil ngaituo le thaw a nih. Ei nungchang le khawsak dan tlangpui chik taka ei bi chun, mihriem le ransaa inchuk ngai kher loa thil hriet le man el theina lungril ei nei, Saptronga ‘instinct’ an ti, eini tronga chu ‘pienvar’ amanih pienphunga varna chi khat um chu ei hmang deu tak lem niin a’n lang. Hi hi sir hrang hranga bi le inkhi thei a na. Kei ka thlirna chu literechar tukver, thu le hla le trong ei hmang danah a nih.

Chu chu ei hril hmain Scientist threnkhatin ‘conscious thought’ mihriemin ei hmang tran hun nia an sui dan chu, hang bi thuok ei tih. Kum 1976 khan Princeton University (USA) a saikawlawzi professor Julian Jaynes chun lekhabu dangdai tak, The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind ti a ziek a. A hung suok chun maktia lungphu chawl vang khom an um nok a nih. Hun inthim lai, sakhaw ril rem naw zawng lekhabu taphot a ziektu leh raw an chîng hun kha ni sien chu, hi lekhabu hi raw tuok ding laia kandidet thra pawl ning a tih.

Prof. Jaynes sui dan chun, mihriemin ngaituona lungril a hmang tran hun chu kum 2800 vel chaua upa a la nih. Chu chu Grik mi ropui, mitdel Homer-in Helen of Troy chanchin, hla thu hmanga Iliad le Odyssey a ziek huna ngai, B.C 700 lai vel kha a nih. Baibul tlanga inthoka thlir chun Isai hai le Jeremia hai tuol leng lai hun kha a nih. Prof. Jaynes hin khawvel hmun hrang hranga sivilaizeson hlui Sumerian hai, Ur hai, Babulon hai, Egypta hai, Hebrai hai, Mayan hai, Mycenean hai le Asia rama chenghaiin thu le hla hlui an lo maksana inthokin ngaituona an lo hmang tran dan nasa takin a sui a. A thil suia inthoka mihriemin thluok an hmang tran hun ni awma a hmu chu a lekhabua hin a ziek a nih.

Ama hril dan chun, mihriem thluoka hin thu le hla umzie thlier hrang theina, Saptronga angular gyrus an ti chu a um a. Chu chun tekhi thu dam hmanga thil ei hril umzie chu a lo thlier hrang a. Angular gyrus chu a hung inthrang dan ang peiin ngaituona khom a hung inthrang a. Tienlai chun an thluoka angular gyrus khan an pathienhai le mi lienhai thupek ang ang chu a’n dik le indik naw khom ngaituo zui loin, thu tawpa ngaiin an pom el hlak niin a hril. Tu laia mi threnkhatin kanseling ei thaw dan hmang leh khom hin an inang hmel khop el. Chun, an ngaituonaa rawl an hriet chu a tak taka an pathienhai amanih thlarauin a hril angah an ngai hlak leiin, rawlin a ti ang angin an khawsa hlak niin a hril bok a. A hmu dan chun, tien lai thusim le thurachi (myths and legends) an rikawthai hi a’n dik le indik naw ngaituo le thlier nachang an hriet hmaa an lo nei a nih.

Tu lai hnai el khan India mi scientist pakhat, California University-a Center for Brain and Cognition-a director V. S. Ramachandran chun American Psychological Society inkhawmah thluoka angular gyrus sinthaw dan nasa taka research an thaw thu a hrilnaah Prof. Jaynes thu lo ziek threnkhat indikzie le kong danga research an thawnaa an thil hmu suokhai chu a tlangzar a. A hril dan chun, thluok voi tieng panga um angular gyrus bawmah thil infuk lo (defect) a um pha chun hrilkhina amanih entirna amani hmanga thu ei hril hi a thu ang charin kha thluok neitu khan a pom thei a, a umzie le kawk ruok chu a man thei nawh. Entirnan, ‘Sakhi thing chung lawn’ ti ta lang, thil ni thei lo, zeldin thubawl mei mei a ni thu ka hrilna ni sienkhom a umzie man naw ni a, thinga sakhi lawn tak tak angin ngai a tih. Hi ngaituona bawm thilthaw dan hi research an thaw nasat ang peiin chieng lema ei hung hriet pei beisei inla.

Hieng thu ei hril hin tien lai mihai khan ngaituona an nei naw amanih, an naw leh an ngaituo thei naw amanih tina a ni naw a; an ngaituona kha chik taka thil suina ding le a sie a thra thlier hrangna dinga hmang nachang an la hriet naw amanih thiem naw amanih tina a ni lem. Hi ngirhmuna hin eini rawi hi ei la um tlangpui niin an lang a, chu chu pom harsa ei ti hle khom ka ring. Sienkhom chu chu ei nina ni tlatin a’n lang bok si a nih. Chu chu thu le hlaa ei ngirhmun besana hmangin hang bi pei ei tih.

Hienga ngaituona hmang loa khawsak le chàng, phing a trâm leh bu fak a, dang a châr leh tui dawn a, hnawm a suok leh inhnawm a, zun a suok leh inzun a, imu a suok leh zàl a, nuhmei le pasal inpawl a, ruolhaiin an thaw leia an thaw ang ang thaw ve chot a, thuhriltuin an hril ang anga lo ngai ve elna le thil dang dang, ni tina ngaituona seng ngai loa ei thawhai hi saikawlawzis-hai chun ‘sleepwalking existence/ state of functional somnambulism’ an ti a, chu chu tho invet anga khawsa tina a nih.

Chu ei ngaituona kalhmang fe dan thlir theina thra tak chu zieka ei thil siehai a nih. Chuong laia entirna thra tak chu ei Baibul hmang laihai hi ni mei an tih. Pathien thu a ni leiin, tien laia mihriemin thluok hmang nachang an hriet hmaa an lo thaw ang khan, a ziek ang angin, an dik le indik naw ngaituo loin, ei hmang top el a nih. A thuin a kawk naw khom a umzie ni dinga an mi hril kha ei inkawktir a, “Chu chu a tina a nih” ei ti hlak. ‘Chu chu a tina a nih’ ei ti hin ‘A hril tum a threla chu, chu chu chu kha kha a tina a nih’ ei tina a nih. ‘Archal a’n bu a, bawngchal a khuong a’ ti ang deuh a nih. Chuong ang chu ei Baibul hmang lai le ei thu zieka hai hin a tam êm êm. Mihriemin ngaituona a hmang tak tak pha ruok chu a hril tum tak hrilna ding trongkam le thu mal indik a ngaituo a, chu chu a hmang lem hlak a nih.

Entirna tlawmte hang hmang inla. “Thu chu tisain a hung inchang a” an mi tipui leiin chu chu ei lei le lungrilah a cham song a. Sienkhom, Baibul chang dangah tisa thil chun Pathien a suklawm thei nawzie thu le thlarau thil le tisa thil chu thil inkal le inaihal tlat a nizie a mi hril tlat si leiin, thu chu Pathien kal zawng, tisaa a hung inchang tak tak chu ni sien, iengtin am sandam ei ni thei ta ding a na? tiin indon inla, ei buoi nghal a ni el. Sienkhom, ngaituona hmanga ei tiem naw leiin indon nachang ei hriet naw tlangpui. Beram ruol anga an mi khal khawmna kohrana ngat lem hin chu ‘sleepwalking existence’ tak taka la khawsa niin ei inlang. Ei piengthar rawnna hin umzie a nei tlawm ding a lo ni hrim a nih.

Kum iemani zat liem tah khan Delhi Hmar Christian Fellowship sande sikul-ah Chanchin Thra Johan kan inchuk a. Chu trum chun Dr. Jacob Pudaite kuomah, “ ‘Amaa chun hringna a um; chu hringna chu mihriemhai varna a nih’ tia ‘varna’ ti hi chu hung thlak ta êm êm ro, ka luok a suoksuok a nih” ka ta. Chuong lai chun Dr. Rochunga Pudaite buotsai Hmar Bible (Millenium Edition, fiemthua ‘Leikhawr Baibul’ an ti bok kha) sut nawk dinga an buoipui lai mek a na. An sut nawk khan chu an hung thlàk ta hrâm a, lawm a um kher el. Hi taka hin Saptrong thu mal ‘light’ chu Lusei trongin ‘enna’ an ti leiin, Dr. Thanglungin ‘varna’ (wisdom) tiin a lo inlet suol a. Ngaituo chet loa inlet chun ‘varna’ zuk ti el khom chu thil olsam tak ning a tih. Amiruokchu, Hmar trong chun light chu ‘var’a na, ‘varna’ chu ‘wisdom’ a nih. Saptrong Baibul chawi thei, B.D khom a zêngpuia intung khop ei nei hnung khomin hi ‘varna’ an lo zep suola hin kum sawmnga chuong zet ei intang a nih. Ieng leia a’n dik nawzie ei hmu suok thei naw? Ngaituona hmanga lekha ei tiem naw lei a nih. Baibul changa khom ei tiem rawn tak laia mi ni sia a’n dik nawzie ei hmu thei tlat naw chun, ‘sleepwalking existence’ a la um zing ei nih ti a chieng hle an naw maw?

Kum 2003-2004 sung khan Churachandpur-ah kum khat deuthaw ka um a. Hi sung hin pastor le kohran thruoitu iemani zat kuomah ‘thil suol thaw’ (committing sin) le ‘thil thaw suol’ (committing mistake/blunder) indanglamna hi hril fie ngiel ka tuma chu ka hlawsam niin ka hriet. A ri an hrieta chu a umzie an man el thei nawh. A san chu ei Baibul hmang laiin, Pathien thuthlung kalin, ‘thil suol thaw’ ti hi ‘thil thaw suol, thil suksuol’ tia an mi lo siepek vong leiin, ngaituona hmang loin, chu taka chun ei intang el a nih. Berampuhai hman chuong ang ngirhmuna um ei ni chun ei beramhai lem chu ngaituoum tak ning an tih. Silai chawia mihriem le mihriem sa anga ei inpel le kohran ei insekhek khom hi thil mak danglam a ni nawh. Ei nina tak, ei thaw awm hrim a ni lem. Sleepwalker ei tam taluo. Ei chala BA/BD/MA/Dr ei bel thret thrut hin umzie a nei tlawm.

Kum 2004 khan Hmar Yahoo Group (HYG) forum hmangin trong lesson iemani zat ka thawpui hman a. Chu taka chun lekha thiema ei ngaihai thusep ziek iemani zat, a trannaa parakraf hmasa tak pei chauh entirnaa hmangin, chik takin ei ngaituona khawvel le chu chu hril suokna dinga ei trongkam hmanghai infuk le infuk naw thu kan bi a. Kan thil tum tak chu ngaituona mit honga thil bi chieng dan inchuk a nih. A san chu thu ziek ding chun ngaituona hmang hmasak phot a ngai lei a nih. Sienkhom thimin var a theida ang deuin, ‘sleepwalking existence’ a inthoka thu ziektu threnkhat chun ‘conscious thought’ hi an lo lawm awzawng naw hi a lo ni a, inlepsenaa ngai a, theida nuom el khom an bo nawh. Chu chun, ei ngirhmun hi nasa nawk zuolin a mi’n ngaituotir a. Chu thu chuh hi taka hin a hmawr ka hang phor lang met a nih.

Inbi chieng a hun ta khop el. Eini lai hin ngaituona hmanga kalchawi, sinthaw, lekha inchuk le nun khal ieng zat am um ei ta? Lungril naset le mitdel ei ni dan hi iengtin am inhre suok thei ei ta? Mi thu hril ngai a, a ri khom hre a, a hril umzie hre si lo le mit pahniin en kur a, hmu zing a, a umzie hmu thei si lo ngirhmuna um hi thil trium tak a nih. Lungril mit le na a’n hong chieng hma chun thil iengkhom hi man fuk tak tak thei a ni naw a, ramsa le mei insuizom zinga hring ang ei nih. Zawnga inthoka vantirko ngirhmun ei chuong kaina dinga sirbi ei hraw ding hi a la sei taluo.

*Pu Keivom is a retired Indian foreign diplomat and author of ZORAM KHAWVEL series.

By Pu L.Keivom*, Inpui Columnist

Success is a journey- -John Maxwell

success-hlawtlingna Kum sawmthum liem tah, April 10, 1974 khan Room 209, External Affairs Hostel, Curzon Road, New Delhi-a ka um laiin thusep sei deu el, BEISEINA KHAMHRUI ti ka ziek a. Thusep ka ziek lai chu tiem hlaw tak le sermon khom cho suok rawn tak a la ni ka ring. A sunzomna BEISEINA KHAMHRUI-2 khom ziek ka nuomna le tumna a sawt ta hle a, tu chen hin ziek loin ka la um zing a.

BEISEINA KHAMHRUI a ka chang thlang tak chu Robert Louis Stevenson hril, “To travel hopefully is a better thing than to arrive, and the true success is to labour” (Beisei taka inzin hi tum ram tlung hma nekin thil hlimum lem a na, hlawtlingna indik tak chu sinthaw a nih) ti hi a nih. A sunzomna ka ziek tuma ka thu buon ding chu a thu thre nawi pahnina, a chunga thupui ei tar lang hi a nih. Ka paina a sawt ta leiin a thring zawnga ngai nuom chun thring tak a ni tah. Amiruokchu, hi thu hi thu thring thei lo le ngharêk thei lo, suk le tunga mihriem ei inlon sung chu indik zing ding, thu rangkachak a nih. Tuta ka thaw tum tak chu sermon thlak loa a thu tlangpui chauh Sura favang lo ena bi chieng hman loa a thlira thlir thuok a nih.

Hlawtlingna hi ei hrilfie dan inang naw rup a tih. Kum iemani zat liem ta khan mihaiin ‘hlawtling’ tia ei ngai hi iem a na ti le a sana mihriemin ei ngai zong suokna dingin SUCCESS Magazine-ah Gallup Poll an nei a. Chu taka ngaidan thaw khawmhaiin hlawtlingnaa an ngai tlangpui sawmpahni laia chun mi zaa sawmnga parietin (58%) HRISEL hi hlawtlingna sanl poimawah an ngai. A poimawzie chu hril tam khom a ngai nawh. Amiruokchu, hrisel hle lang, iengkhom thaw mumal nei si naw lang, mi hlawtling ka ni thei ding am a ni?

Mi tam takin hlawtling ei inkhina chu HAUSAK a nih. Mi hausa chu mi hlawtlingah ei sie deu vong a nih. Amiruokchu, khawvela mi var tak le hausa taka Baibul-in a hril hiel Solomon chun, “Sum ngainatu chun sum dittawk a nei ngai naw a, hausak ngainatu chun a lungawina tawk a lam suok ngai nawh” (Thuhriltu 5:10) a lo ti a. Amerikaa mi hausa tontaw John D. Rockfeller chu sum ieng zatin am a lungawi ding ti an indon a, ama chun hniek phawi der loin, “A neka tam met” (Just a little bit more) tiin a don. Microsoft lalram neitu Bill Gates khom indon inla, chu tho chu a donna ning a tih.

Khawvela sumdawngna a tlak siet thut hun, Economic Depression an tran hlim, 1923 khan thil siem thrat dan ding ngaituo dingin Chicago khawpuia Edgewater Beach Hotel-ah Amerika rama hausa tontaw mi pasari- Charles Schwab, Arthur Cutten, Richard Witney, Albert Fall, Jess Livermore, Leon Fraser le Ivar Kreuger- hai chu an inkhawm a, chuonghai hausakna bel khawm chu a ram sorkar Treasury-a sum nek daiin a tam lem. Sienkhom, hienghai tawpna chu iem a na? Pathum chu mani an inthat a, pahni chu bat tam tak neiin an thi a, pahni dang chun lungin an nghak. Grik mi hausa Aristotle Onassis chun, “Iemani chen ei phak hnung chun sum hau hi a poimaw tak a ni ta nawh. A poimaw tak chu hlawtling a nih” a tih. An leh, hlawtling a ti chu iem ni tang a ta?

Threnkhat chun mi hlawtlinga ei ngaihai chu THUNEINA (Power) chel a nih. Prime Minister le Minister hai khom hi thuneina cheltu an ni leiin an chel lai chun an ropui bung bung annawm. Sienkhom, ieng anga dictator khom a tawpa chu mi theida an hung kai a, an tla tho tho. Minister tla tahai pheng hmel sietzie hi ei hmu ta seng ka ring. English historian Lord Acton chun, “Power tends to corrupt and absolute power corrupts absolutely” (Thuneina chun mi a sukhlemhle a, thuneina tawpkhawk chun a sukhlemhle tawpkhawk rawt) a lo ti a. America President lo ni tahai laia a hming hmai ngai lo ding Abraham Lincoln khomin, “Nearly all men can stand adversity, but if you want to test a man’s character, give him power” (Mi tin deuthawin harsatna ei hmasuon ngam laiin, mi tu khom a nina tak i fie nuom chun thuneina inchalaitir rawh) a ti bok a nih. Thuneina hi a cheltuin an inruipui deu vong bakah thuneina chun mi a sukkawrap a, a suksiet nuom. A tîrin thuneina chel thei ngirhmuna um hi hlawtlingna angin inlang sienkhom, a tawpa ruok chu sietna khura mi hnuk luttu a ni nuom rop.

Mi an hlim pha hlawtlingah ei ngai. Chuleiin, HLIMNA ei hnot a nih. Ei thil dithai nei thei chu hlimna le hlawtlingnaah ei ngai bok. Sawtnawte sunga ding chun a’n dik el thei. Amiruokchu, ei thil nei ta hnunga hlim nekin ei thil dit, ei la nei si lohai nei chaknain lungril a hluo rawn lem. Chuleiin, hlim hi hlawtlingnaa ngaitu chu a hlim ruolin a hlawsam tran nghal a nih. Kea lawn hlak chun saikal a’n hnar a, a nei charin scooter a’n hnar nawk a, a nei charin car, a nei charin vuongna, a nei charin thil dang. Kong khata chu dit zawng nei hi a letlinga hlawsam intranna bul ti thei a nih. A mak khop el.

Thil tum hlen hi hlawtlingnaah ei ngai deu vong. Lekha inchuktu taphotin Class X amanih Class XII thra taka tling chu inchuk zom pei theina dinga makmaw a nih ti ei hriet. Ei tling pha chu ei lawm hle. Amiruokchu, ei tling charin ei pan ding hma tieng ram hmu phak lo inzar chu ei hmu nghal bok a nih. Ei inchuk zom pei amanih, an naw leh thil dang tieng ei hnot a ni naw chun ei tum ei hlen suok ni, ei hlawtlingna ni kha ei hlawsamna ni intranna a ni nghal a nih. Hlawtlingna chu tum ram pana inzin pei a nih.

Chuleiin, hlawtling ding chun ei thiltumah chieng a ngai. Mi tinin theina zawng le inhnikna zawng ei nei seng. Ei theina tieng zawnga ei inbûr pha pha leh ei theina tawp insuoin ei hmang thei a, mi hlawtling ei ni thei vong. Chu chu hre chieng a, chuong tieng chu pana ei dam lai long khal ding a nih. Tum ram ei hriet naw chun inzin dinga inbuotsai dan ding khom ei hriet mumal thei nawh. Ei tum ram ei hriet chieng ruol peiin chu ram tlungna dinga ei inbuotsai dan ding le ei thil mamawhai chu ei hriet sap pei bok a nih. Chu ruol chun, Hebrai ziektuin a hril angin (12:1) tum ram pana ei tlan lai hin, ei inzinnaa ei hnoksakpui ding le ei kalchawi sukbahla thei thilhai chu ei thè thlak a ngai bok a nih.

Hlawtlingna tak tak chu tum ram pana ni tina inzin pei hi a nih. Hma tieng pana kal voi khat ei chawi zatin kal khatin ei hlawtling a na, kal za ei pen pha kalzain, kal maktaduoi ei pen pha kal maktaduoiin. Ei kal pen a chawl charin ei hlawtlingna khom a chawl ve el a nih. Chu lei chun annawm, THE SUCCESS JOURNEY ti ziektu John Maxwell chun, “Success is a journey” a lo ti bakah R. L. Stevenson-in, “The true success is to labour” a lo ti chu.

Fam tah Pu L.Rokung leh a chanchin ziekna, KA NUN ti kan buotsai lai chun, harsatna pik tak tak a ner thleng dan le vangneina a dong hai a hril hnungin, “Kei hi mi vangnei am ka nih mi vangduoi?” tiin zawna poimaw tak a siem a. August 22, 2003 zan tienga hlim taka kan inpawl tlang laia muol a mi liemsan chenin, chawl la loa hma tieng pana inzin pei mi a ni leiin, keiin ka hmu dan chun, mi vangnei tak le mi hlawtling tawp a nih.

Mani chanchin tlawmte hang zep inla. Ka penson hnunga ka hun hmang rawnna tak chu Baibul inlet a nih. Beipui ka thlak tak tak lai chun dannaranin ni tin darker 12-16 sin ka thaw a, darkar 18 ka thaw chang khom a tam. Kum sawma mi thaw hlak kum khata hlen zo ka tum tlat leiin mi thaw let sawm ka thaw a ngai a. Chu chu mihriem theina le hratna pangngai ringot chun thil thaw ruol loah inlang ni sienkhom Lalpa hratnaa thaw thei ngei inringna le tumna ka nei tlat a, chu ding chun ka’n pek top a, kum thum le thla sari sungin ka hlen ta reng bok a nih. Delhi Version-a thumal um zat hi 865754 a na, chu chu Zoram Khawvel bu 30 neka tam bel khawm ang hu a nih. Chu umzie chu thla khat le a chenve dan peiah Zoram Khawvel bu khat ka ziek zo ang tluk a nih. Chuong anga hrat chun tlan thei dingin a hma khan ka lo inring ngai nawh. Sienkhom, sentence khat ka’n let zatin sentence khatin ka hlawtling a lo ni si. Sekhon le minit tin ei hmang trangkai pha darkarin umzie a nei a, darkar tin ei hmang hlawk pha ni tin ei hlawtling el a lo nih. Ei hmang trangkai naw ruok chun ni tin ei hlawsam a ni nawk thung.

Delhi tlanga khawsa eini rawi a tam lem hi inchuklai an nih. Chuonghai chun hlawtling hi iem a na a umzie ti an hriet chieng ka nuom bek bek a nih. Kum tawpa an lekha inchuknaa hlawtling an tum chun ni tin le darkar tina an thaw ding a hmatiema an hlen pei a ngai. Ni tina an inchuk ding an hlen chun ni tin an hlawtling a na, an inthla dula an hlen naw chun ni tin an hlawsam tina a ni bok. An hlawtling darkar nekin an hlawsam darkar a tam lem leiin nuom angin ruol ei ban zo naw khom a hoi. Chuleiin, ei khawsakzie hi inbi chieng tum ei tiu. Hlawtling chu hma tieng pana ni tina kalchawi le inzin a nih.

*Pu Keivom is a retired Indian foreign diplomat and author of ‘ZORAM KHAWVEL” series. 

HPC-D LogoLalmalsawm Sungte

Hmar rebel outfit wants extension of SoO

In a big set back for peace and security in Mizoram, the Hmar People’s Convention (Democratic) leadership has accused Chief Minister Lalthanhawla administration of not being committed to its words by issuing a statement, saying the outfit “is convinced of the absence of confidence, trust and commitment despite signing the document for the Suspension of Operation (SoO)” last year.

“After much deliberations on the ongoing peace process, the Hmar People’s Convention (Democratic) – HPC(D) is convinced of the absence of confidence, trust and commitment despite signing the document for the Suspension of Operation (SoO). The narrow pre-conditions that has been repeatedly put forward by the Government of Mizoram has not only reduced the credibility of the Suspension of Operation (SoO) document, but also the parties that are involved in it,” Pu L.B Hmar, secretary, department of public affairs said in a statement made available to MizoramExpress.com.

The HPC(D) is an offshoot of the Pu Hmingchunghnung-led Hmar Peoples’ Convention that signed a peace accord with the state government leading to the formation of Sinlung Hills Development Council in 1994.

Possibly irked with the state government’s refusal to talk to its delegates who are “outsiders”, the HPC-D make it clear that it was not satisfied with the state’s half-hearted attempt towards finding a lasting solution to the Hmar political solution. The outfit said it will was not ready for talks until a “healthy climate” is created by the government.

However, the peace process has not been completely shelved as the HPC(D) said it will send its delegates again for extending the SoO sometime in May. “We have asked the Government of Mizoram to find a suitable date for the purpose,” Pu Hmar said.

The SoO was signed on November 11, 2010, and at that time the Government of Mizoram agreed that, “the HPC(D) shall have the liberty to appoint any respectable person(s) to assist them in their dialogue with the Government”. However, recently, a communiqué was received by the outfit that its delegates from outside the State were not welcomed.

“In the interest of securing a healthy climate for the political talk, the HPC(D) opines that the current term of the SoO be fruitfully employed by both sides. Accordingly, it is the stand of the HPC(D) that the ‘Hmar-Government of Mizoram Political Talk’ be held only after the extension of the current term of the SoO,” the rebels’ statement added.

The duration of the SoO was for six months and if talks are ever to be held, the two sides will have to extend it by May.

In a State where identity, culture, tradition, language and memories are dying fast the table for political dialogue has already raised high expectations for the Hmar people, one of the biggest Mizo tribe.

Silchar, March 10: The Congress government in Mizoram will import modern arms and a bullet-proof car to step up security in the state, plagued by short bursts of militant violence.

While the bullet-proof car is on its way to Aizawl, the Mizoram government, to buttress the strength of police, will import some regulation arms from the US and Italy.

Disclosing this yesterday, a senior official of the Mizoram government’s home department said two companies of policemen comprising sharpshooters and skilled technical personnel would be raised for effectively using the bullet-proof car and arms. They will be inducted shortly in Mizoram police for the first time in its history.

Sources said the Mizoram government was apprehensive of threats from militant organisations such as the Hmar People’s Conference (Democratic) as well as outfits floated by Brus and Myanmarese gangs.

Though the HPC (D) had recently signed a truce pact with the Mizoram government, formal talks have not begun.

The home department senior official said a bullet-proof car — a Pajero SUV manufactured by the Japan’s auto major Mitsubishi Motors — was bought recently by the Mizoram government at the cost of Rs 20 lakh.

At the recommendations of the Defence Research and Development Organisation, the car was fitted with some accessories which pushed up its cost to Rs 46 lakh. This bullet-proof car will be used by the President, Vice-President and the Prime Minister when they visit the state.

The arms include 90 pieces of Colt M4 carbine, and 116 pieces of pistols from the Berreta company of Italy.

The Telegraph

Boston: They may have the moolah, and millions of it, but that does not necessarily make them happy, according to a new study that finds that super-wealthy people feel isolated and worry the most about love, work and future of their children.

The study titled ‘The Joys and Dilemmas of Wealth’ by the Boston College’s Centre on Wealth and Philanthropy, and co-funded by the Gates Foundation finds that the rich are brimming with anxieties and “turn out to be a generally dissatisfied lot, whose money has contributed to deep anxieties involving love, work and family.”

The super-rich are “indeed frequently dissatisfied even with their sizable fortunes. Most of them still do not consider themselves financially secure; for that, they say, they would require on average one-quarter more wealth than they currently possess,” the study said.

Among other woes, the survey respondents said they feel they have lost the right to complain about anything “for fear of sounding - or being - ungrateful.” Those with children, worry that their children will become “trust-fund brats” if their inheritances are too large or will be forever resentful if those inheritances are instead given to charity.

Apart from making the children less ambitious, who may feel assured in their financial well-being, money “runs the danger of giving them a perverted view of the world. Money could mess them up - give them a sense of entitlement, prevent them from developing a strong sense of empathy and compassion.”

As one respondent pointed out, “We try to get our kids to do chores but it is hard to get them to mow the lawn when we have an almost full-time gardener.”

Psychologist and one of the survey’s architects Robert Kenny said it appears that the “only people in this country who worry more about money than the poor are very wealthy. They worry about losing it, they worry about how it is invested, they worry about the effect it is going to have. And as the zeroes increase, the dilemmas get bigger.”

Kenny said extreme wealth can take away some of the basic joys of living. Some wealthy people do not look forward to the holidays “because they were always expected to give really good presents.”

The study, published in magazine The Atlantic, questioned roughly 165 households, 120 of which had fortunes in excess of USD 25 million, about how prosperity has shaped their lives and those of their children. The respondents’ average net worth is USD 78 million and two were billionaires.

Despite the financial security, a fortune affords, issues related to money cause the failure of many marriages and relationships.

Wealthy people of both genders are wary of gold diggers and fear that this wariness might make them mistrustful of genuine affection.

The respondents also said they feel their outside relationships have been altered by, and in some cases become contingent on, their wealth.

The study further added that a life of worklessness, no matter how financially comfortable, can easily become one of “aimlessness”, of estrangement from the world.


By Prof Lal Dena*, Manipur University

Following India’s Independence in 1947, the Government of India placed Manipur, then a princely state with mixed populations (tribal people constituting about 36 p.c. of the total state population) under the Fifth Schedule on the basis of the A.V.Thakkar Subcommittee’s report. That means that the tribal peoples of Manipur do not have the constitutional safeguard which aims at maintaining the traditional pattern of self-governance by giving the tribal areas concerned, certain degree of autonomy to deal with and preserve their way of life, their land, their customary law, etc. through the Sixth Schedule Autonomous District Council. Recently the Government of Manipur passed two acts: the Manipur Land Reform and Land Revenue Act (MLR&LRA), 1960 and the Manipur (Hill Areas) District Councils Act, (MHADCA) 1971.

The MLR&LRA is meant for the four valley districts of Manipur, but there has been consistent attempts to extend the act in the hills thereby causing a lot of tension among the tribal peoples.

To whom the land belongs? To the Manipur maharaja/tribal chiefs during the colonial period or the succeeding Manipur state in the post-independence period? During the colonial period, J.Shakespeare, political agent, issued what is popularly known as the ’boundary paper’ to the tribal chiefs in the name of the maharaja. This is to imply that at least theoretically that the whole land within the boundary of Manipur belonged to the maharaja.

In course of time, with the recognition and incorporation of the tribal chiefs with the colonial establishment for the purpose of collecting hill house tax and for administering simple justice in their respective chiefdoms, some sort of semi-landlordism had been allowed to grow in the hill areas of Manipur thereby pushing the poor villagers to the status of some kind of tenants who paid certain fixed amount of paddy and every front leg of any animal shot or killed (some kind of feudal practice called busung-sadar) to the chiefs annualy.

Soon after independence, the Government of India abolished the Privy Purse, and the Manipur State Legislative Assembly also passed the Manipur Hill Areas (Acquisition of Chiefs Rights) Act on 14 June, 1967 which authorized the state government to acquire the rights, titles and interests of the chiefs in the hill areas of Manipur. According to the Act, the chiefs were to be compensated on the basis of the following criteria: (1) the area of land under chiefs; (2) total number of households within each chiefdom; and, (3) compensation in installment or lump sum. But because of the objection raised mainly by the Chiefs’ Union (CU) among the tribal chiefs, the Act could not be implemented till today. Almost all the tribal chiefs still talk about retention or reform of the institution of chieftainship even though the institution of Privy Purse was abolished in the valley of Manipur sinces 1967..

The institution of tribal chieftainship could not protect indigenous tribal lands. One clear example is the accelerated processes of tribal land alienation consequent upon the introduction of the Manipur Land Reform and Land Revenue Act (MLR&LRA),1960 which is amended from time to time. Despite the opposition from tribal leaders, as we are all aware, the act is extended to (1) 89 villages of Churachandpur district in 1962, vide notification no.142/12/60, dated 22-2-1962; (2) 14 villages in Sadar Hills of Senapati district, vide notification no. 138/4/64, dated 25-2-1965; (3) 14 villages in Khoupum valley of Tamenglong district, vide notification no. 3/12/83, dated 14-11-1987.

One serious complicacy is that under section 14 of the said Act, a person in a tribal village can be treated as trespasser or encroacher if he does not apply for allotment of the land which he has possessed or occupied for generations without any hitch. This is what had actually happened in Saikot village of Churachandpur district. The MLR&LRA is solely meant for the valley of the 4 plain districts of Manipur. In other words, the MLR&LRA does not suit the topography of hill areas and is against the traditional tribal land use. So the immediate need of the hour is the introduction of new separate land law for the hills. Right now there is no record of land rights and no land in the hills is a mortgageable commodity. As a result, no tribal farmer can apply for loan from financial institutions for improvement of his agricultural activities.

If autonomy means for self-rule, then right to autonomy or self-government means internal management of local affairs including culture, religion, education, social welfare, economic activities, land and resources free from outside interference. immediately after the end of colonial rule, the Government of Manipur enacted the Manipur State Hill Peoples (Administration) Regulation Act, (MSHPAR),1947 which divided the whole hill territory into circles. In each village of tax-paying 20 households or above, there was a village authority consisting of chiefs and elders.

Above the village authority, there was circle authority comprising one circle officer appointed by the government and a council of 5 members elected by the village authorities falling within the circle. To encourage people’s participation in the local administration, the Manipur (Village Authority in Hill Areas) Act was passed in 1956 which introduced for the first time election of members to the village authority on the basis of adult franchise by repealing the earlier MSHPAR Act, 1947. When Manipur attained statehood in 1972, the Manipur (Hill Areas) District Council Act, 1972 was passed by the state government.

Unlike their counterparts in Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Tripura, no provision under Sixth Schedule was extended to the so-called autonomous district councils in Manipur. The district councils solely depended on the financial support of the state government.

They have no judicial and legislative powers. Because of public demand for extension of the provisions of the Sixth Schedule, the district councils were dissolved since 1988. The 7th Manipur Legislative Assembly had passed the Manipur Hill Areas Autonomous District Council (Amendment) Bill on 25th July, 2000 again without Sixth Schedule provision and elections were held last year. They are just constitutional make-believe..

In the valleys of Manipur, modern panchayat system was introduced since 1960. For the gram panchayats and nagar panchayats, there was the state finance commission which made a comprehensive study for the improvement of funds and resource mobilization. Again for the panchayat bodies, there was also consolidated fund directly funded by the state government and the central government. The district planning committee under panchayats initiated planning right from gram panchayats.

But the district councils in the hills, when in operation, had to make planning in consultation with the planning department of the government. What is conspicuously absent in the district councils and village authority councils are women participation. Under the panchayat bodies, not only 36 per cent seats are reserved for women, but specific quota of pradhans and up-pradhans in the gram panchayats and adhyakshas and up-adhyakshas of zilla parishad are also reserved for elected women. Altogether there are 22 women in the 4 zilla parishads and 2 of the 4 adhyakshas are women. Of the 1556 gram panchayats, 567 are women and of whom 55 are pradhans. But women participation is completely absent both at the district and village level councils in the hill areas.

On the whole, the level of operation of panchayats is much higher than the district councils. Even if Sixth Schedule provisions are extended, the district councils can manage primary schools and dispensaries, whereas the panchayats are entitled to exercise control over higher secondary schools, hospitals and those long list of powers under the 11th schedule of the Indian constitution. In the final analysis, while the district councils are under constant threat of the Democle’s sword of the state, the panchayat bodies have been undergoing a liberalization process of federalism and democratization at the district level.

Besides, the adhyakshas, up-adhyakshas, pradhans and up-pradhans are entitled to monthly salaries and the members of the zilla parishads and gram panchayats also get sitting allowances. The village authorities in the hills do not have such allowances, not to speak of salaries. Deeply aware of the deficiencies in the constitution and functioning of the district councils and village authorities, the Chief Minister’s Advisory Committee on Social Policy was formed in1995–1997 in which I was one of the members. Of our recommendations, only the Manipur State Human Rights was implemented so far.. Our other recommendations regarding conceptual draft on tribal land law and village authority councils for the hill areas of Manipur.are still kept in the cold storage. I gave the draft copy to our sitting MLAs from Tipaimukh; but no action has taken so far.

To conclude, the North Eastern Region Vision 2020 also puts forward in its plan of action the need for land reforms, distribution, updating of land records and their computerization, codification of customary land tenure system and recognition, laws related to use of forests, maximizing self-governance which means the strengthening of the self-governing institutions and empowerment of the people. In order to protect the age-old tribal customary rights on land and also to ensure maximum people’s participation in the decision-making processes of government at the grassroots level, introduction of separate land law for hills and amendment of the Manipur (Hill Areas) Village Authority Act in the context of the 73rd Amendment of Indian Constitution are long overdue.

*Professor Lal Dena is teaching History at Manipur University, Chanchipur, Imphal.

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